Technical Terms

API standard
ASIVIE code and standard ASTM standard bbl/d Blower Boiler
Actuator comprises a motor that moves or control an external object or mechanism. Actuators are used to execute an action in a process automation and control system. For example, if a valve is required to be closed, the motor in the actuator will provide the clockwise/counter clockwise motion to close the valve
American Petroleum Institute standard is a technical standard which covers all aspects of the oil and gas industry
American Society of Mechanical Engineers code and standard is a code of practice and technical standard which incorporates safety, health and environmental elements
American Society for Testing and Materials standard is a technical standard for a wide range of materials, products, systems and services
Barrels per day, which represent the number of barrels of oil produced in a single day. A barrel is equivalent to approximately 159 litres
Blower has the same function as a fan. Refer to “Fan” for more details. However, a blower operates at higher pressure compared to fans
Boiler is an enclosed pressure vessel which uses fuel source or electricity to heat water or other liquid to generate hot water, steam or vapour. Boiler is also referred to as fired pressure vessels. A boiler that heats water to generate steam is referred to as steam boilers
Condition-based monitoring, which is a predictive maintenance strategy that uses the actual condition of the rotating equipment to determine the timeliness and type of maintenance services that need to be carried out. This maintenance strategy allows asset owners to optimise their maintenance resources by automatically scheduling maintenance on an as-need basis depending on the analysis of the asset’s condition data
Computer numerical control
Compressed natural gas, which is processed natural gas that is compressed to high pressure for the purpose of cost-efficient storage and/or transportation. Compression of gas enables more of the gas to be contained in a given enclosed container
Column is cylindrical equipment erected vertically and is used to separate a mixture into two or more components, or to transfer a material from one phase to another phase. Depending on the internal installation, column has various applications in chemical processes including distillation, stripping, absorption and extraction. For example, a fractional distillation column is used to separate crude oil to its various components to produce refined petroleum products. A column is sometimes referred to as a tower
Compressor increases the pressure of the air or gas by reducing its volume within a confined space
Crude oil transfer pump
Centralised utility facility refers to a centralised area with various plants and equipment used to provide utility services to nearby industrial users. Examples of utilities include power, steam, chilled water, demineralised water, compressed air, industrial gases and wastewater treatment
xx Engine
Feed-in Approval
Final Control Element
Gas power plant
Gas turbine
Heat exchanger
HI\/II HVOF Coating
Distributed control system acts as a master controller or computer that integrates, control and automate all the individual sub-systems in a manufacturing or processing plant. A distributed control system is needed to ensure that all the different processing activities are carried out precisely, in a timely manner, and in the correct sequence
Engine is used to do work. It consumes fuel to produce movement which is used to undertake one or more functions
Engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning
Fan is used to provide continuous flow of air or gas by rotating a number of vanes or blades connected to a central point. It is powered by motors, engines or turbines
Feed-in approval certificate is granted by the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia to be eligible to sell renewable energy at the feed-in tariff rate. The feed-in tariff rate is determined by the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. It differs for different renewable resources and installed capacities, and may vary from time to time
Final control element refers to the mechanical device that performs the actual function or changes some parts of a process. However, it commonly requires an actuator to provide the source of energy to execute a movement or activating the final control element. Some examples of final control elements include valves which are used to vary the amount of liquid flowing through a pipe, switches that turn the power supply on or off, pumps for moving liquids and slurries and compressors for compression of air or other gases
Gas power plant uses the combustion of natural gas to run a gas turbine to generate electrical energy
Gas turbine uses natural gas as the input energy source to create combustion to run a turbine to do work or to provide thrust. Refer to “Turbine” for more details
Generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction
Global positioning system
Hazard analysis and critical control point
Heat exchanger is used to efficiently transfer heat from one medium (for example a liquid or a gas) to another without the two medium mixing together or come into direct contact
Human-machine interface
High velocity oxygen fuel coating is a high pressure, high velocity thermal spray process using liquid fuel and oxygen. It is used to apply coatings on parts and components that require strong wear resistance, erosion and abrasion
LPG Microturbine
Hydropower plant converts the kinetic, or movement, energy in flowing or falling water into electrical energy. Commonly dams are built to contain large bodies of water to provide the potential energy for conversion into kinetic energy to run turbines to generate electricity. Alternatively, the moving water from an upstream river is used instead of a dam to run turbines to generate electricity, which is referred to as run-of-river scheme
Refers to devices that are used to detect presence of a particular substance, measure the quantity of a substance, velocity of a moving substance, quantify a specific property of a substance or measure some variables of the environment. Examples of instrumentation includes gas analysers that detect the presence of a particular gas, thermocouple that measures the temperature of a substance or the environment, flow rate meter that measures the velocity of a moving gas, liquid or slurry, and pH meter that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a fluid
Inspection, repair and maintenance
Kilowatt is a unit of electrical power. It is used to measure the amount of power an equipment or plant is capable of generating at any given time, such as power output of an equipment and installed capacity of a power plant. One kilowatt is equivalent to 1,000 watts
Liquefied natural gas
Lost time injury is the occurrence of an Injury by an employee which results in time loss from work in the form of the employee being unable to perform his normal work or having to be absent from work
Liquefied petroleum gas
Microturbine is a small rotor-type turbine engine with energy outputs ranging from 25 kW to 500 kW. It is commonly used for power generation
l\IIillion standard cubic feet per day
Motor uses electricity, air or hydraulic pressure to produce mechanical movement. The function of a motor is similar to an engine, with the exception that they use different energy source
Maintenance, repair and overhaul
Million tonnes per annum is a weight based production measurement value over a one-year period. It is a typical measurement unit for LNG and petrochemical production and facility capacity
Megawatt is a unit of electrical power. It is used to measure the amount of power an equipment or plant is capable of generating at any given time, such as power output of an equipment and installed capacity of a power plant. One megawatt is equivalent to 1,000,000 watts
Operations and maintenance
Original equipment manufacturers
Pressure vessel or Unfired pressure vessels
Process control
Pump Reactor RFID
Rotating equipment The overhaul of any equipment requires the entire equipment to be stripped down to its parts and components for cleaning, repair, reconditioning, replacement and recalibration. The process of cleaning, reconditioning and repairing could include, among others, machining, fabrication, balancing, alignment, buffing, blasting and coating. In some situations, parts and components are damaged beyond repair and would need to be replaced. Once all parts and components are restored to as close to its original condition as possible, they are reassembled and the equipment tested and commissioned
It is a structure used for the purpose of directing natural water flow from a body of water to a specific destination. In the context of the IMR Report, penstock refers to a series of pipes placed at upstream parts of a river to channel moving water to run turbines for the purpose of generating electricity
Programmable logic controller, which is similar to a computer where it can be programmed to read input data, process the data based on conditions and algorithms, and send output data for display or further action. In a manufacturing and processing environment, measuring instruments are linked to the programmable logic controller to continuously provide input data, while on the output side, it is linked to the distributed control system to integrate with other processes, actuators to initiate an action, switches to turn on or off power supply, and display panels as part of human­machine-interface. Programmable logic controller is used interchangeably with the term controller
Pressure vessel is an enclosed container that is designed to hold fluid in a liquid or gaseous state at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. An unfired pressure vessel refers to a pressure vessel that is not designed to accept heat from an external source
Process control is involved in controlling and automating all steps within one or more production process. Commonly this include a programmable logic controller or other master controller including DCS and SCADA
Pump is used to move liquids, gasses or slurries. A pump requires either an engine or a motor as an energy source to do work
Reactor is a pressure vessel used to control and contain chemical reactions
Radio-frequency identification is a small electronic device that uses electromagnetic fields to automatically track and identify electronically stored information
Rotating equipment is a general classification of machinery and equipment designed to generate reciprocating or circular motion, which is then used to move or agitate materials. Rotating equipment works through a system of drivers (machinery that uses an external energy source like fuel or electricity to provide the source of power to do work, for example turbines, engines or motors), driven components (equipment that uses the power source to do specific work, for example generators, pumps or compressors), transmission devices (equipment or components involved in the transfer of motion or energy from one machinery/equipment to the next, for example gears, clutches and couplings), and ancillary equipment and systems (examples include inlet air system and filter, fuel system, exhaust duct and piping system)
xxiii Run-of-river scheme
Small gas power plant
Small hydropower plant
sq metre
Static equipment
Steam turbine Remote terminal unit is a device which objective is to collect data where it is located, and transmit the collected data to a central station housing a host computer. Commonly the remote terminal unit is located in a remote location relative to the central station, and as such wireless communication is commonly used between the remote terminal unit and the central station. A remote terminal unit functions similarly to a programmable logic controller with the addition of a wireless receiver and transmitter for wireless communications. As such, a remote terminal unit incorporates a basic computer to perform reading of input data, undertakes minimal data processing, encodes the data in compliance with standard communications protocol, and transmits the encoded data to a central host computer. Attached to the remote terminal unit would be measurement instruments. Remote terminal unit is commonly associated with a SCADA system where SCADA is the master controller which resides in the main host computer
Run-of-river scheme is a type of hydropower plant which diverts a portion of the water flow from the river through a pipeline or penstock. The pipeline will channel the water flow into a power station which is equipped with hydro turbines to generate electricity. Subsequently, the tail water from the power station is fed back into the river
Supervisory control and data acquisition, which is a control system commonly used to monitor and control multiple equipment in remote locations. Equipment in remote locations is referred to as RTU and is attached to measurement instruments to measure environmental conditions or processes. SCADA commonly uses wireless technology for communications between RTU and central host computers due to the remoteness of many of its RTU
Separator is a pressure vessel used for the separation of solids, liquids and gases into its various components. In oil production, separators are used to separate oil, gas and water from well fluids
In the context of this Prospectus, a small gas power plant refers to gas power plant with output capacity of up to 4 MW
Small hydropower plant produces electricity by harnessing power of flowing water from lakes, river and streams. In Malaysia, according to the Renewable Energy Act, 2011, small hydropower plants are hydropower plants with installed capacity of up to and including 30 MW
square metre is a unit to measure area. It is usually used to measure flat space such as a piece of land or the floor of a building
Static equipment is an object that does not have any mechanical or moving parts and are part of the processing or manufacturing process. They include process equipment such as pressure vessels, heat exchangers, reactors, condensers, evaporators, columns and separators
Steam turbine uses high pressure or superheated steam as the input energy source to turn the blade of a turbine to do work. It is usually equipped with a boiler or a heat recovery steam generator which generates the steam source to run the steam turbine. In the context of the IMR Report, steam turbines are mainly used to generate electricity. Refer to “Turbine” for more details
Operators licensed with PETRONAS must be registered for specific categories of work (products and/or services) that they are eligible to provide. These categories of work are known as Standardised Work and Equipment Categories where the operators must satisfy some minimum technical requirements before they are awarded with one or more registration of the Standardised Work and Equipment Categories, which are subject to periodic review and renewal
Turbine is designed to provide rotary motion using an applied energy source. The main component of a turbine is the rotor where a central axle or core is fitted with blades or vanes to capture the input energy to convert it into rotary motion. The rotary motion is used to do work including generating electricity, pumping liquids and slurries or compressing gases. Common sources of input energy include petroleum gas, steam, water and wind
Vendor Development Programme is a programme administered by the MITI to develop Malaysian Bumiputera small and medium sized enterprises to become competitive suppliers and manufacturers of components and services in domestic and overseas markets. An anchor company is selected by the MITI to take on and nurture a number of selected small and medium sized enterprises vendors for specific products and services to the anchor company
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