Technical Terms

Acrylic acid
Ammonia Aromatics
Benzene
Butane
Butanediol Butanol
Butene-1
Butyl acetate
Butyl acrylate
CAGR Capacity utilisation
Chemical intermediate (colourless liquid) traditionally made by fermentation. It is a raw material for several key petrochemical intermediates and products, including vinyl acetate monomer for coatings and adhesives, purified terephthalic acid for polyester production, acetate esters, cellulose acetate, acetic anhydride and monochloroacetic acid
Chemical intermediate used in the production of acrylate esters, superabsorbent polymers, detergents and f1occulants. Acrylic acid is a propylene derivative, which is produced by propylene vapour-phase oxidation
A nitrogen and hydrogen compound in the form of colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour
A family of hydrocarbons characterised by a single or mUltiple ring structure. The most commonly traded are benzene, toluene, and xylenes
An aromatic hydrocarbon in the form of a colourless, flammable liquid. It is created by catalytically reforming naphtha, in the thermal cracking process, and is used in the production of other chemicals such as styrene, cumene, cyclohexane and maleic anhydride
A gas which liquefies with a relatively small increase in pressure or decrease in temperature. Butane is used for heating, as a petrochemical industry feedstock and as an additive in petrol to enhance its vapour pressure
A chemical intermediate (colourless liquid) which is used in the production of high performance polymers, solvents and fine chemicals
A chemical intermediate (colourless flammable liquid) which is used to produce other chemicals, as an ingredient in formulated products such as cosmetics, coatings. adhesives and as a solvent
An organic chemical base, derived from cracking of petroleum or C4 distillate and used mainly to produce butadiene and butanol
Butyl acetate is most commonly prepared by esterification, the reaction of acetic acid with n-butanol. The major end-use for butyl acetate is as a medium-boiling solvent for lacquers and enamels. It is also used as an active solvent for cellulosic resins, chlorinated rubber, polystyrene and methacrylate resins
Butyl acrylate is a colourless liquid, produced from the esterification of crude acrylic acid and butanol. It is used in the production of coatings and inks, adhesives, sealants, textiles, plastics and elastomers
Compounded annual growth rate
Total production (including off-specifications products) expressed as a percentage of nameplate capacity during the year
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Cracking
Cubic metre Debottlenecking DEG
EDC
Ethane
Ethanolamines
Ethyl hexyl acrylate
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene A colourless, odourless gas produced in the production of synthesis gas or syngas. Syngas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by partially oxidising natural gas at high temperatures and pressure. Carbon monoxide is used as a chemical feedstock for the production of acetic acid and methanol
A refining process which breaks down large molecules of oil into smaller molecules. When the process is achieved by applying heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. Cracking uses molecular decomposition and recombination to produce a range of more useful base chemicals suitable for motor oils or petrochemicals
A cubic metre of gas at a temperature of 0° Centigrade and an ambient pressure of one atmosphere
Increasing production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing equipment to remove throughput restrictions
Diethylene glycol, a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid which is a by­product during the production of MEG. It is a chemical intermediate used in the production of unsaturated polyester resins, plasticisers, acrylate and methacrylate resins and urethanes
Ethylene di-chloride is the first molecule produced in the vinyls chain and is a toxic, flammable, and corrosive liquid at room temperature. It is most commonly formed from ethylene and chlorine, and is used for VCM production, with small amounts used for the manufacture of other organic compounds
A gaseous hydrocarbon that is one of the major raw materials for the ethylene petrochemical industry
Ethanolamines include monoethanolamines, diethanolamines and triethanolamines. Ethanolamines are used as sweeteners, detergent and specialty cleaner formulations, flexible urethane foam catalysts, pharmaceuticals, textile processing aids, personal care products, metalworking and oil well rust preventatives, concrete additives, agricultural chemicals, photographic emulsions, adhesive/rubber chemical intermediates, packaging and printing inks and others
A white water liquid with a characteristic odour. It is used in the production of homopolymers and co-polymers for example acrylic acid and its salts, esters, amides, methacrylates, acrylonitrile, maleates, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, styrene, butadiene and unsaturated polyesters
An aromatic liquid hydrocarbon, is a chemical intermediate made from the reaction of benzene and ethylene. It is a precursor to styrene production
An essential organic chemical base derived from the thermal cracking of ethylene and naphtha or from the dehydration of ethanol. It is used to make polyester and many organic chemical intermediates, such as polyethylene, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, vinyl chloride, styrene, acetaldehyde and ethanol
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Ethylhexanol
Ethylene oxide
Feedstock Fuel oil
Glacial acrylic acid
Glycol ethers
Granular urea
HDPE
Hydrocarbons km kt ktpa LDPE
LLDPE
LPG An organic chemical compound, derived from the oxidation of ethylene. This includes monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol
A chemical intermediate in the form of a clear, colourless liquid. Its major use is in plasticisers, mainly diisooctyl phthalate. It is also used in specialty plasticisers such as adipates, trimellitates and phosphates
A highly reactive chemical intermediate used in the production of ethylene glycol and other oxide derivatives such as glycol esthers, polyethylene glycol, polyether polyols, diethylene and triethylene glycols and ethanolamines
Major raw materials used in a processing plant, of which naphtha and ethane are the most important for olefins production
A flammable liquid hydrocarbon with a chemical formula of C9+. Normally it is used as a fuel for plant boilers and ship bunkers. It can also be used to make carbon black material
A clear, colourless liquid with a characteristic acrid odour. It is miscible with water, alcohol and ether. Acrylic acid will undergo the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid, as well as reactions of the double bond similar to those of the acrylate esters. It is a purified form of acrylic acid that is mainly used for super absorbent polymer production
Glycol ethers, consisting of a series of over 30 ethylene glycol and propylene glycol derivatives, are produced by reacting an alkylene oxide with an alcohol. During the reaction, monoglycol, diglycol and triglycol ethers are produced and then separated. The monoglycol and diglycol ethers are used primarily as solvents in coatings and cleaners. Triglycol ethers are used primarily in brake fluids
A droplet of liquid urea that is dried into roughly spherical shapes used as a fertiliser
High density polyethylene, used for tubes, pipes, household containers, grocery bags, water coolers, milk bottles and other products
Substances composed of carbon and hydrogen
Kilometres
Thousands of metric tonnes
Thousands of metric tonnes per annum
Low density polyethylene, used for films, tubes, mechanical parts, toys, electric wire insulation and other products
Linear low density polyethylene. A strong, clear film used for packaging .and other products
Liquefied petroleum gas, primarily propane and butane produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants
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Methane Methanol
mmBtu Monomers
MOPJ
mt MTBE
mtpa MW Nameplate capacity
Naphtha
Natural gas
Nonyl phenol ethoxylates
n-butane
Olefins Mono-ethylene glycol, an organic chemical compound derived from the oxidation of ethylene. It is produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide and water. MEG is mainly used for polyester and anti-freeze production
A light, colourless gas which is the principal component in natural gas and a major raw material for the production of methanol
Simplest organic alcohol and is a colourless, flammable liquid. While originally produced from wood or coal, today methanol is produced mainly using methane as feedstock
Million metric British Thermal Units
Small molecules that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer
Means of-Platts CFR Japan which shows daily price assessment of CFR Japan open specification naphtha market
Metric tonne or “tonne” is equal to 1,000 kilograms, or 2,204.6 pounds
Methyl tertiary butyl ether, an organic ether that is volatile, combustible in the form of a colourless liquid that is categorised as an oxygenate due to its ability to boost the oxygen content and octane rating of gasoline. It is relatively water soluble and exhibits an unpleasant taste and odour in solution
Metric tonne per annum
Megawatt, a measure of electrical power
The capacity of a production facility based on technology licences and/or production rates guaranteed by the construction contractor
A general term used for low boiling hydrocarbon fractions that are a product of crude oil or condensate refining. Naphtha is used as feedstock for ethylene and propylene production .
A colourless gas, high flammable gaseous hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane, ethane: and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane
Mixtures of nonionic surfactants with many uses primarily as surfactants in detergent formulations, emulsifiers, wetting agents and defoaming agents
A gas in the LPG family of petroleum gases that can be separated from the gas stream that is often associated with crude oil as it leaves an oil well. Butane is a four carbon hydrocarbon that can either be arranged as a straight chain (n-butane) or branched (iso-butane). Butane extracted from associated gas is most usually a mixture of these two isomers. !\I-butane is more highly valued as a petrochemical feedstock as it yields more ethylene in a steam cracker
A straight or branched-chain hydrocarbon with at least one unsaturated and carbon-carbon bond. Produced by cracking feedstock from raw materials such as natural gas and crude oil. The main olefins are ethylene and propylene and also include butadiene and C4 derivatives
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Oxo-alcohol
Oxogas
Palatinol Ah
Paraxylene
Performance chemicals Petrochemicals Phthalic anhydride
Plasticiser
Polyalkaline glycol
Polyolefins Polyethylene Polyethylene glycol
Oxo-alcohol is alcohol in the C6-C” range. Major products of oxo­alcohol are n-butanol, iso-butanol and 2-ethyl hexano!. n-Eutanol and iso-Butanol are used as solvents in coating formulations. They are also used as chemical intermediates in the manufacture of glycol ethers, acetate esters and acrylate esters. 2-ethyl hexanol also has a range of solvent applications, but is primarily used as a raw material for the manufacture of plasticisers
Synthesis gas or syngas or a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. It is produced from natural gas and other hydrocarbon feedstocks as an intermediate in the production of a number of derivatives including ammonia, methanol and oxo-alcohols
A colourless, clear dioctyl phthalate. It is used as a plasticiser for cellulose coatings, cellulose acetate butyrate and dispersions
An aromatic hydrocarbon in the form of a colourless, flammable liquid that is recovered from mixed xylenes streams by adsorption and by isomerisation of aromatics. It is a major raw material for polyester production
Chemicals produced in order to improve performance, increase efficiency and enhance features that benefit multiple industrial sectors
Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas
An aromatics derivative produced by the oxidation of ortho-xylene. Phthalic anhydride is used to make phthalate plasticisers, which are used for PVC production. It is also used in the production of alkyd resins and unsaturated polyester resins
A chemical additive added especially to rubbers and resins to impart flexibility, workability or stretchability. Most common plasticisers for plastics are phthalates and they are often based on esters of polycarboxylic acids with linear or branched aliphatic alcohols of moderate chain length
Polyalkaline glycol is used in rubber and lubricant applications. The benefits over using polyalkaline glycol based lubricants over petroleum, animal and vegetable oils are reduced energy usage, reduced machine wear and overall operational efficiency
Hydrocarbons resulting from the chemical combination of olefins or polyolefins
A polymer, derived from polymerisation of ethylene, and used to make various plastics such as film and sheet, piping and containers
A water-soluble linear polymer produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide. It is used in a wide range of applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine. For industrial applications, it is used as a dispersant for toothpastes, an ink dissolvent and lubricant for the print heads and precipitant for protein crystallisation. It is also used to improve flexibility of polyurethanes
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Polypropylene
Propane Propylene
PVC
Pygas
ROO
Refining
Resin
Specialty chemicals
sq ft sq metre Styrene monomer
When certain individual molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion, they form a polymer. The chemical reaction that forms a polymer is called polymerisation
A polymer, derived from polymerisation of propylene. It is used to make packaging materials, toys, mechanical parts, housewares, synthetic fibres and other products
A gaseous hydrocarbon (C3 Hs). It is a member of LPG used for heating and as a raw material for the production of propylene
An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from petrochemical processes in the form of a colourless gas. It is obtained from the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons, ranging from natural gas liquids (ethane, propane and butane) to petroleum liquids (naphtha and gas oils). It is used to make polypropylene, acrylonitrile, propanoic acid ester, phenol, acetone, synthetic petroleum, synthetic resins, synthetic rubber and synthetic fibers
Polyvinyl chloride, a versatile thermoplastic polymer produced from VCM. It is extensively used in the construction sector for a variety of applications including pipes, siding and window/door profiles, wire and cable insulation, rigid film/sheet and flooring
Pyrolysis gasoline, a naphtha-range product with a high aromatics content, used in the production of benzene, toluene and mixed xylenes and as a motor vehicle gas blending stock
Re-distilled ethylene oxide used as one of the main ingredients to produce chemical and performance chemical products
The conversion of crude oil into useful products, such as naphtha, a feedstock for the petrochemical industry. The general refining process begins with the separation of crude oil into different fractions by distillation. The fractions are further treated to convert them into mixtures of more useful products by various methods such as cracking, reforming, alkylation, polymerisation and isomerisation. These mixtures of new compounds are then· separated using methods such as fractionation and solvent extraction
Any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a non­crystalline or viscous liquid substance. Natural resins are organic substances that are transparent or translucent, formed in plant secretions. Synthetic resins comprise a large class of synthetic products that have some of the physical properties of natural resins but are different chemically. Most synthetic resins are polymers
Chemicals produced in small volume, having higher unit values and used for critical applications requiring stringent performance criteria
Square feet
Square metre
A colourless liquid that is a chemical intermediate made from dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene and a vinyl group of styrene molecule which can readily undergo polymerisation
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Toluene An aromatic hydrocarbon used as an octane enhancer in gasoline, as a chemical intermediate in the production of benzene, paraxylene, toluene diisocyanate and as a solvent in paints
Urea A fertiliser with a minimum nitrogen content of approximately 46% by weight
VCM Vinyl chloride monomer is an intermediate chemical of the vinyls chain, mainly produced by thermal cracking of EDC. Almost all VCM produced is used to manufacture PVC, with other applications consuming very little VCM
Xylene Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is a base for many petrochemicals and is used to derive orthoxylene and paraxylene. Orthoxylene is used in the production of plasticisers, vitamins, drugs, and dyes and paraxylene is used in the production of polyester
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