Technical Terms

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
Aframax tankers
bbl
bbl/d bulkhead
buoy chemical tankers
cu.m
deepwater dry-dock
dwt
E&P employment employment rate EPC
EPCIC
FEED
field
FPS Class of crude oil carriers, with a loading capacity between 80,000 dwt and 120,000 dwt

Barrel, a unit of measure for oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 US gallons, 35.0 imperial gallons and 159.0 Iitres
Barrels per day
A reinforced retaining wall at the seafront used to offload heavy structures from the yard onto transporting vessels·
Unmanned floating structureused for mooring units offshore
Chemical tankers equipped with appropriate machinery and fitted with inert tank linings, used to handle the transport of potentially corrosive chemicals such as sulphuric acid
Cubic metres, the unit used to measure the volumetric cargo carrying capacity of LNG carriers
Water depths equal to or more than 300 metres
Narrow basin, typically in a shipyard, that can be flooded to allow a vessel to be floated in, then drained to allow the vessels to rest on a dry platform for maintenance and repairs
Deadweight tonnes, the measure used to measure ship capacity. The maximum weight of cargo that a vessel is certified to carry
Exploration and production

Aggregate ship capacity actually utilised to transport cargo
Utilisation rate, the ratio between vessel utilisation and supply
Engineering, procurement and construction, used to describe a contract between a company and a contractor to perform detailed engineering, procurement of materials and equipment, and construction of structures
Engineering, procurement, construction, installation and commission, used to describe a contract between a company and a contractor to perform detailed engineering, procurement of materials, construction of structures, transport to site, installation and commissioning (preparatory activities to commence operations)
Front-end engineering and design, includes the process of defining a project’s basic systems (conceptual schemes), the detailed evaluation of these conceptual schemes in preparation for execution and the basic engineering conducted before project approval
Geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies. Also refers to an area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same individual geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition
Floating production system, a collective term for all types of floating production units, including FPSOs, semi-submersibles, TLPs, SPARs and FSOs. Semi-submersibles, TLPs and SPARs are normally deployed in locations with pipeline infrastructure, since they typically do not have storage facilities
xix GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS (Conf’d)

FPSO
FSO IOC jacket
jackup
landberth liVing quarters LNG
LNG carriers
LPG
LTIF
MODU
modules
mooring buoy MOPU
mt
mtpa
NOC
OPEC
platform Floating, production, storage and offloading system, an offshore system comprising a large tanker or similar vessel equipped with a high­capacity production facility. FPSOs are normally moored at the bow to the seabed to maintain a geo-stationary position, and serve as a fixed point for risers to connect subsea wellheads to on-board processing/production, storage and offloading systems. Produced oil is periodically offloaded to smaller shuttle tankers, which transports the oil to onshore facilities for further processing

Floating, storage, and offloading, a vessel that stores crude oil produced from a fixed or floating platform
International oil company, large integrated oil and gas company operating in numerous countries around the world
Structure under a platform fixed to the seabed using-piles
Mobile self-lifting unit comprising a hull and retractable legs used for offshore drilling and other operations
Onshore berth for vessel docking and repair
Modules designed to provide living space for personnel working on an offshore platform
Liquefied natural gas obtained by cooling natural gas to minus 160°C at normal atmospheric pressure. One mt of LNG is equal to 1,400 cubic metres of natural gas at normal temperature and pressure
Double-hulled ships specially designed to carry LNG (primarily ethane and methane) under very low temperature
Liquefied petroleum gas used for heating or as a fuel for vehicles
Lost time injury frequency, which measures the number of lost time injuries (LTls) recorded per million man hours worked. LTI represents a work-related injury or illness that renders the injured person unable to return to work on any day after the day of the injury or illness, including any rest day, weekend, scheduled holiday and public holiday. LTI also includes fatality case(s)
Mobile offshore drilling unit, a drilling rig used to drill offshore exploration and development wells that floats on the water surface when being moved from one drill site to another. Basic types of mobile units include bottom-supported drilling rigs and floating drilling rigs
Modular sets of equipment designed to perform one or more functions and be installed on an offshore platform
Offshore mooring system
Mobile offshore production unit, a unit capable of floating that is used to perform offshore production. Basic types of mobile units include bottom­supported units and floating units
Metric tonne
Million metric tonnes per year, a unit of measure for LNG
National oil company, oil and gas company owned by a national government, typically having special rights or access to its local market
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, currently composed of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela
Offshore structure that is permanently fixed to the seabed
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GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS (Cont’d)
PSC
product tankers riser
semi-submersible
shiplift
skid-track
SPAR
substructure
TLP
topside
topside fabrication
TRIF

turret
ULCC or ULCC vessels VLCC or VLCC vessels
Production sharing contract, an agreement between the parties to a well and a host country regarding the percentage of production, each party will receive after the participating parties have recovered a specified amount of costs and expenses
Oil tankers equipped with appropriate machinery to handle volatile oil products such as petrol, kerosene and diesel oil
Pipe or assembly of pipes used to transfer fluids from the seabed to surface facilities or to transfer injection fluids, control fluids, or lift gas from surface facilities to the seabed. Risers can be either rigid or flexible
Floating offshore system with pontoons and columns on which drilling or production facilities can be mounted. When flooded, the unit submerges to a predetermined depth. Semi-submersibles are either self-propelled or towed to the offshore site and are either anchored or dynamically positioned over the site or ballasted to rest on the seabed. Semi­submersibles offer greater stability in rough waters than other platform systems. A semi-submersible is normally the preferred structure for developing reservoirs scattered over a wide area (as opposed to TLPs and SPARs, which normally develop reservoirs over a small area or develop fields requiring frequent well maintenance)
Structural platform that is connected to a number of winches and hoist systems to dock and un-dock vessels
A track system for rolling or sliding objects
A vertical, cylindrical structure with the majority of the hull underwater. The deep hull of a spar lowers its centre of gravity, making the structure . more stable. Also known as a deep draught caisson vessel
Structure that supports topsides and normally contains space for storage and well-control equipment
Tension leg platform, a TLP has a deck on a pontoon column structure moored to the seabed with steel tendons. The deck supports production processing facilities
Oil production facility above the water, usually on a platform or production unit for drilling, production, accommodation or a mixture of these purposes
Fabrication of all topside structures
Total recordable injury frequency, a measure of the number of injuries recorded per million man hours worked. A recordable injury is injury that includes LTI, medical treatment and restricted wo~k case
Rotating structures used with FPSOs to attach lines to the unit, allowing the lines to remain connected while the unit moves;· turrets may be internal or external to the FPSO
Ultra-large crude oil carriers, crude oil tankers with a loading capacity above 300,000 dwt
Very large crude oil carriers, crude oil tankers with a loading capacity between 200,000 dwt and 300,000 dwt
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