Technical Terms

BASF process
benzene
BD bimodal HDPE BOPP BTX
butadiene
butene
C3 C4 C4 Raffinate-1 C4 Raffinate-2 C5 C5 Non Aromatics capacity utilisation
copolymer cracking
debottlenecking
DWT ethane A family of hydrocarbons characterised by a single or multiple ring
structure. The most commonly traded are benzene, toluene and xylene The extraction process of butadiene using technology developed by BASF SE
The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon (CeHe). Each carbon in the ring has a single hydrogen attached. It is a volatile inflammable liquid created by catalytically reforming naphtha, in the thermal cracking process and is used in production of other chemicals such as styrene, cumene, cyclohexane and maleic anhydride
Butadiene HDPE resins with high strength but stretchable, good for film application Biaxial orientated polypropylene Chemical compound comprising of benzene, toluene, and the three
xylene isomers
Also called 1,3-butadiene, a flammable gaseous olefin used in making synthetic rubbers An organic chemical containing four carbon molecules (C4Ha) used as a
comonomer in production of polyethylene Hydrocarbons with three carbons Hydrocarbons with four carbons A remaining mixture of C4 produced as a by-product of the BD Plant A remaining mixture of C4 produced as a by-product of the TBA Plant Hydrocarbons with five carbons A mixture of C5 and Non Aromatics The total production (including off-specifications products) expressed as
a percentage of nameplate capacity, adjusted for plant debottlenecking, scheduled turnaround and scheduled maintenance during the year
A polymer derived from more than one species of monomer A refining process which breaks down large molecules of oil into smaller molecules. When the process is achieved by applying heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well, it is known as catalytic cracking. Cracking uses molecular decomposition and recombination to produce a range of more useful base chemicals suitable for motor fuels or petrochemicals
Increasing production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing eqUipment to remove throughput restrictions
Deadweight tonnage A gaseous hydrocarbon, it is a major constituent of natural gas and a major raw material for the production of ethylene
xxi FEED feedstock
FOB fraction fuel oil
HDPE
hexane
hexene
homopolymer K-COT
KT KTA
kV
LDPE
light cycle oil
LLDPE LPG MDPE MEG metallocene
methane An essential organic chemical base derived from the thermal cracking of ethane and naphtha or from dehydration of ethanol. It is used to make polyester and many organic chemical intermediates such as polyethylene, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, vinyl chloride, styrene, acetaldehyde and ethanol
Front-end engineering design
Raw materials used in a processing plant, of which naphtha and ethane are the most important for the olefins industry Free on board A component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process A flammable liquid hydrocarbon and normally it is used as fuel for plant
boilers and ship bunkers. It can also be used to make carbon black
material High-density polyethylene, used for tubes, pipes, household containers, toys, grocery bags, water coolers and milk bottles
A six carbon saturated straight chain hydrocarbon used primarily in its
pure form as a solvent An organic chemical containing six carbon molecules used as a comonomer in production of polyethylene
A polymer comprising identical monomer units
KBR Catalytic Olefins Technology, a technology applied which converts heavy feedstock blend into higher olefins products Thousand metric tonnes Thousand metric tonnes per annum Kilo-volt Low-density polyethylene, a material widely used in the manufacturing of
plastic components A flammable liquid hydrocarbon with a chemical formula of C9+. Normally
it is used as a blending material in heavy fuel oil and is used as a fuel for ship bunkers Linear low-density polyethylene, used for packaging Liquefied petroleum gas Medium density polyethylene Monoethylene glycol A catalyst employed under the technology licensed from Univation
Technologies for mLLDPE production A light, colourless gas which is the principal component in natural gas
xxii mixed C4
mLLDPE
monomer
MT MW nameplate capacity
naphtha
natural gas
Non Aromatics OCU off-specifications
olefin
petrochemical polyethylene
polymer
polyolefin polypropylene
propane Metathesis is an equilibrium and reversible reaction between two olefins where the double bond of each is broken and new olefins are formed from the exchange of parts of the reactants
A hydrocarbon compound of butane, butene and butadiene, mainly derived from the process of producing olefins products from the steam cracker
Metallocene LLDPE, produced using technology licensed from Univation Technologies
A substance comprising molecules which can undergo polymerisation, by contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macro­molecule
Metric tonne
Megawatt (1,000,000 Watts), a measure of electric power
The capacity of a production facility based on technology licences and/or production rates guaranteed by the construction contractor
A general term used for low boiling hydrocarbon fractions that are a product of crude oil or condensate refining. Naphtha is used as feedstock for ethylene and propylene production
A colourless, highly flammable gaseous hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane, ethane and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane
Hydrocarbons with 6 to 8 carbons without aromatic rings
Olefins conversion unit, a reactor used in the production of olefins
Products that do not meet specifications, which are usually sold at a discount
A straight or branched-chain hydrocarbon with at least one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. Produced by cracking feedstock from raw materials such as natural gas and crude oil. The main olefins are ethylene and propylene and also include butadiene and derivatives
Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas
A polymer derived from polymerisation of ethylene and used to make various plastics such as film, sheet, piping and containers
When certain individual molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion they form a polymer. The chemical reaction that forms a polymer is called polymerisation
A polymer, derived from polymerisation of olefins
A polymer derived from the polymerisation of propylene and used to make packaging materials, toys, mechanical parts, housewares and synthetic fibres
A gaseous hydrocarbon (C3Ha), it is a major constituent of natural gas and a major raw material for the production of propylene
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PVC
pyrolysis gasoline or pygas
resins
SPYRO
Surplus Products TBA toluene
Unipol VOC xylene yield
An organic chemical base, which is a colourless, flammable, gaseous hydrocarbon obtained from the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons, ranging from natural gas liquids (ethane, propane and butane) to petroleum liquids (naphtha and gas oils). It is used to make polypropylene, acrylonitrile, propanoic acid ester, phenol, acetone, synthetic petroleum, synthetic resins, synthetic rubber and synthetic fibres
Polyvinyl chloride, a synthetic plastic polymer
It is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatics content. It is a feedstock for BTX Plant and can be used for gasoline blending and is a by-product of naphtha cracking plants
Any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a non-crystalline or viscoLis liquid substance. Natural resins are organic substances that are transparent or translucent, formed in plant secretions. Synthetic resins comprise a large class of synthetic products that have some of the physical properties of natural resins but are different chemically. Most synthetic resins are polymers
Specialised software developed by Technip to determine the optimum output of propylene and ethylene that can be extracted based on the type and quality of naphtha received
Excess ethylene, benzene, toluene, fuel oil and propylene
Tertiary butyl alcohol
Benzene rings where one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by a methyl group (-CH3). It is used as an octane enhancer in gasoline, as a chemical intermediate in the production of benzene, paraxylene, toluene diisocyanate and as a solvent in paints and chemicals
LLDPEI HDPE production technology licensed by Union Carbide
Volatile organic compounds
Benzene rings with two methyl groups (-CH3) in place of hydrogen
Feedstock consumed expressed as a percentage of production, each measured in tonnes
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