Technical Terms

I Company No: 1072872-D I
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
Basement
Bore piling Bored pile
Contiguous bored pile wall CSM
CSM wall Diaphragm wall
Displacement pile Earthworks
Foundation
In situ One or more floors of a building which is partly or entirely below ground level
The activity of constructing bored piles
Bored piles are formed by boring or excavating a hole into the soil to the required depth. A reinforcement cage made of steel bars is then lowered into the hole and wet concrete is poured in and left to set. A bored pile is generally considered to be a type of replacement pile
A type of retaining wall which is constructed using closely spaced bored piles
Cutter soil mix (CSM) refers to a technology used for the construction of retaining walls where cement slurry is mixed with existing soil in situ and allowed to harden. The process utilises two sets of cutting wheels that cut the surrounding soil while simultaneously blending injected cement slurry with the eXisting soil. This results in the formation of hardened rectangular panels once the cement hardens
A type of retaining wall that is similar to a diaphragm wall, except that it is created using CSM technology
A type of retaining wall which is constructed by excavating a series of rectangular panels to form a continuous wall. The excavated panels are then filled with reinforced concrete to form the wall
A pile that displaces soil during installation. For example, a driven pile displaces soil as it is being driven into the ground
Any operations or works in, on or over land which result in substantial modification to the existing ground terrain, land form or slope. These include removing overburden, excavation, formation of new slope or embankment, and cut and fill operations
A general term to refer to any structu re that supports a load or prevents a force from moving in its original direction. In the context of this Prospectus, foundation refers to either piles or retaining walls. Piles are used to support vertical loads and prevent the load from descending further. Retaining walls are used to prevent the lateral load or force from moving further

Generally refers to construction which is carried out at the building site using raw materials
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I Company No: 1072872-D I
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS (Cont’d)
Pile
Prefabricated building system

Replacement pile
Retaining’ wall

Secant pile wall
Stratum Substructure
Superstru cture
Long and slender columns placed below ground to

Above Ground
function as foundation to
(SuperSlflJclUre)
support above ground buildings and other structures. Piles commonly sit
BeJ!lw Ground
(Subslructure)
above rock formation or some other hard layer of natural or man-made material. The pile’s function is to support the above ground structure by transferring its load down to the rock formation or hard layer of material.
Piles are made of materials such as wood, steel, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete and composites (combination of different materials in the same pile). Most of the piles used today are made of concrete, especially for large structures and high-rise buildings
A system comprising components of a building which are fabricated on-site or off-site, and then installed on-site to complete the building
Piles that are installed by first removing the soil by methods such as excavation or driliing. The removed soil is then replaced with concrete or other materials to form the pile. It is also known as non-displacement piles
A type of foundation structure used to retain soil, rock or other materials in a vertical condition. They provide a lateral support to vertical slopes of soil that would otherwise collapse
A type of retaining wali which is constructed using intersected bored piles where primary piles (which are usually reinforced) are installed first. Once the primary piles gain sufficient strength, secondary piles are constructed in between the primary piles
In geology, stratum refers to a layer of sedimentary rock having approximately the same composition throughout
The substructure refers to the bottom part of a contiguous structure that is below a baseline. For buildings, the baseline is the ground level or the basement, and the SUbstructure comprises the foundation works including piling, retention walls and basements.
For bridges, the SUbstructure includes everything below the span such as abutments, piers, piles and other support structures
The superstructure refers to the top part of a contiguous structure that is above a baseline. For buildings, the baseline is the ground level or basement, and the superstructure is the part of the building that is above the ground level or basement.
For bridges, the superstructure includes the span that carries the load and everything on and above the span
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