Technical Terms

Christmas Tree
Crude Oil
Deep sea
Dewaxing Agent
Drag Reducing Agent or ORA
Drilling Mud
Drilling Rig
Dry Hole Completion
Floating Production, Storage and Offload (“FPSO”) Vessel
The most commonly used unit in measuring and pricing crude oil or other petroleum products. 1 Barrel is the equivalent to 158.97 Iitres.
Devices and techniques that allow for the pneumatic handling of pOWders, including chemicals and cement.
A metal pipe (usually steel) placed in a hydrocarbon well as drilling progresses to prevent the wall of the Wellbore from collapsing. Casing provides a means of extracting hydrocarbons if the well is productive.
The assembly of valves, pressure gauges and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been drilled and completed.
A process by which a well is brought to its final classification -basically, as a Dry Hole, a Producer, or an Injector. These Completion processes generally involve some combination of borehole equipment, casing and tubing, and surface injection or production facilities.
The unrefined portion of petroleum that exists in a liquid state in natural underground reservoirs and remains in a liquid state at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Crude Oil may contain small quantities of non-hydrocarbons.
Informally defined by the oil and gas industry as water depth between 500 meters and 1,500 meters.
A chemical agent used to remove specific solid wax and other hydrocarbon deposits from a Wellbore and Production Tube.
The tools, equipment, and instruments used in the Wellbore, or conditions or techniques applying to the Wellbore.
A synthetic hydrocarbon-based macromolecule that is added to petroleum being pumped through pipelines to reduce the loss of energy due to friction as fluid travels through the pipeline. A Drag Reducing Agent allows higher throughput without using additional pressure/ pumps.
A fluid that is specially formulated for use in hydrocarbon drilling. Drilling Mud is also known as Drilling Fluid.
A surface structure housing equipment and machinery used in hydrocarbon exploration and production. A Drilling Rig may be onshore or offshore. Offshore Drilling Rigs usually include all facilities necessary to carry out drilling, including living quarters. The types of offshore oilrigs commonly used are jack-up, semi-submersibles and drill-ships.
The process of plugging and abandoning a Wellbore that is not economically productive.
A production facility based on a purpose-built or modified vessel, generally moored to the sea floor, capable of producing and processing hydrocarbons from subsea wells, as well as storing and ottloading the hydrocarbons onto shuttle tankers.
ix Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon Reserve
Immobile Platform
Injector Completion
Jack-up Drilling Rig
Line Kilometre Mooring System
Natural Gas
Offshore Production Facility
Oil Major Power-generating unit that extract mechanical energy from the flow of combustion gas. A basic Gas Turbine consists of an upstream compressor coupled with a downstream turbine, with a combustion chamber in between. Mechanical energy generated by the spinning turbine may be utilised directly, or converted into other forms of energy, mechanical or otherwise.
A wide range of chemical compounds compnslng hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbon also refers to, and is used interchangeably with, oil and gas.
Those quantities of hydrocarbons which are anticipated to be commercially recoverable from known accumulations from a given date forward.
Production Platform built on concrete and/or steel legs anchored directly onto the sea floor. They are not mobile and are designed for long-term use. Use of Immobile Platforms is generally restricted to shallow water.
The process of completing a well thaI requires fluids to be injected into the reservoir to increase pressure, thus forcing hydrocarbons to the surface.
Structure that is installed on the seabed, on which the Topside or Module rests.
A mobile offshore drilling structure with tubular or derrick legs that support the deck and hull. A Jack-up Drilling Rig is towed or propelled to the drilling site with its legs in a raised position. When positioned over the drilling site, the foot of the legs rest on the seafloor.
Unit of measure commonly used in Seismic Surveys.
A system designed to secure a vessel, FPSO, or any floating production system to the sea floor by means of buoys, chains, anchors and other equipment.
A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon gasses. Methane (CH4) is the chief constituent of most natural gas.
A facility fabricated for the purpose of carrying out hydrocarbon production in an offshore environment. Offshore Production Facilities include offshore Production Platforms, FPSO and other facilities.
An area rich with petroleum deposits where producing oil wells are usually situated.
An integrated oil and gas industry company active in all, or nearly all, sectors of the oil and gas industry. Oil Majors may be publicly owned, privately owned or state-owned companies. Oil Majors tend to be large, and usually multinational in their operations.
Producer Completion
Production Platform
Production Sharing Contract or PSC
Production Tubing
Seismic Survey
Semi-submersible Rig
Subsea Tree System
Topside or Module
Ultra-deep sea
Wellbore A complex mixture of a naturally occurring hydrocarbon compounds found in rock. Petroleum may be in gaseous, liquid or solid states, but the term generally refers to liquid crude oil.
The process of completing a well so that hydrocarbons may be produced from the reservoir.
The structure on which hydrocarbons are extracted in a marine environment (i.e. offshore) is known as a platform. Platforms provide a base for drilling or production activities.
In a production-sharing contact between a contractor and a host government, the contractor typically bears all risks and costs for petroleum exploration, development, and production. In return, if the exploration is successful, the contractor is given the opportunity to recover its investment from production, subject to specific limits and terms. The contractor also receives a stipulated share of the production remaining after cost recovery, referred to as profit hydrocarbons. Ownership is retained by the host government. However, the contractor normally receives title to the prescribed share of the volumes as they are produced.
A small-diameter pipe that is run into a well to serve as a conduit for the passage of oil and gas to the surface.
A technique for determining the structure of geological formations by sending energy waves or sound waves into the earth, recording the waves reflected back to the surface, and interpreting the wave reflections.
Floating offshore structure that has hulls or pontoon-like structures submerged in the water, but not resting on the seafloor. Semi­submersible Rigs are either self-propelled or towed, and are either anchored or dynamically positioned over the site, or both. Semi­submersible Rigs can be used as drilling and production platforms, depending on the equipment installed.
Offshore, subsurface hydrocarbon flow control equipment. Subsea Tree Systems are located on the sea floor.
Generally the portion of Immobile Platforms, Semi-submersible Platforms, and Jack-up Rigs that is permanently above the surface. Typically houses all the equipment and systems required for self­sufficient hydrocarbon production.
Informally defined by the oil and gas industry as water deeper than 1,500 metres.
The Wellbore itself, including the openhofe or uncased portion of the well. Borehole may refer to the inside diameter of a Wellbore wall, the rock face that bounds the drilled hole.
Wireline Tools
Surface termination of a Wellbore that incorporates facilities for installing casing hangers during the well construction phase. The Wellhead also incorporates a means of hanging the production tubing and installing the Christmas Tree and surface flow-control facilities in preparation for the production phase of the well.
A range of services performed using a single-strand or multi-strand wire or cable in oil or gas wells. Tools are attached to the end of the Wireline for obtaining information about the wells
Specialised devices designed to perform a specific function in a tubing and Wellbore. Tools are generally attached to the end of a Wireline and lowered into a tubing and Wellbore. Tools include measuring equipment, imaging equipment, and equipment that is able to perform a mechanical action.

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