Technical Terms

UTM William Hon
Technical References Active compound
Active ingredient
Aerobic fermentation Association of Analytical Communities or AOAC method Apple stem cells
Biomass
Bioreactor
Cell bank
Clinical Research Organisation or CRO
C. sinensis Cordyceps militaris
Fish collagen Formulated ingredient
Freeze drying Functional food
Ganoderma lucidum
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Hon Tian Kok @ William
Active compound refers to biological components within active ingredients which may have certain therapeutic properties
Active ingredient refers to the substance produced from the extraction process of herbs (such as medicinal mushrooms, kacip fatimah and tongkat ali) or non-herbal materials (such as fishes and pearls)
Fermentation process occurring in the presence of oxygen
AOAC method refers to a globally recognised standard of laboratory testing. Among other tests, an AOAC method is also used to determine if the sample contains heavy metals
Apple stem cells refers to a form of active ingredient utilised in the manufacturing of health supplement products derived from apples.
Biomass is a biological material from living organisms including herbal plants such as medicinal mushrooms
Bioreactor is an apparatus which carries out a biochemical process involving micro-organisms. Amongst other uses, this apparatus is utilised to carry out the fermentation of medicinal mushrooms
Cell bank is a storage facility where strains are stored under controlled
conditions and accessed periodically to undergo the liquid fermentation
process

A CRO provides clinical trial testing and other research support services for
the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries Cordyceps sinensis is a type of medicinal mushroom mainly found in the Himalayan plateau, particularly in the Tibetan region
Cordyceps militaris is a type of medicinal mushroom in the family Clavicipitaceae
Fish collagen is a protein extracted from fish that is mostly used in cosmetics Formulated ingredient refers to semi-finished products which we produce using one (I) or more active ingredients
Freeze drying is a dehydration process which rapidly freezes particles
Functional food is food with potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition Ganoderma lucidum or Lingzhi Mushroom is a type of medicinal mushroom
which can be found mainly in East Asia and northern Eastern Hemlock forests
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DEFINITIONS (Conl’d)
GMP
Grifola/rondosa
Herbal supplement
High-value herbal products
Hyaluronic acid
Inoculum Isomalto-oligosaccharide L-gluthathione
1. rhinocerus
Liquid fennentation facility Liquid fennentation process Liquid-solid separation
Lentinula edodes
MAL Maltodextrin Medicinal mushroom
Good Manufacturing Practice, an internationally recognised standard of manufacturing that is applied for manufacturing of food and food-related products, traditional medicine and phannaceutical products
Grifola frondosa or Maitake Mushroom is a type of medicinal mushroom which can be found in north-eastern part of Japan and North America
Herbal supplement refers to dietary and nutritional supplement which is manufactured from herbal active ingredients such as tongkat ali and medicinal mushrooms, and is used to boost an individual’s nutritional intake and/or which offer the potential of improved health. It is typically found in a tablet and capsule fonns
Defined by the ETP as herbal products targeted for R&D with the intention of commercialisation into botanical drugs with scientifically-backed claims. The R&D activities are in the areas of discovery, crop production and agronomy; standardisation and product development; toxicology/pre-clinical and clinical studies; and processing technology. The initial phase is focused on five (5) main herbs, namely tongkat ali, misai kucing, hempedu bumi, dukung anak and kacip fatimah
Hyaluronic acid is utilised in the manufacturing of health supplement products. It is a carbohydrate fluid substance with important lubricating properties particularly in the joints and eyeballs
Inoculum refers to a small amount of substance containing bacteria from a pure culture which is used to start a new culture
Isomaito-oligosaccharide is a low calorie sweetener used in the manufacturing ofheaith supplement products
L-glutathione is an amino acid with powerful antioxidant properties that squelches free radicals, as well as assists in the liver detox process
L. rhinoceros or Tiger Milk Mushroom is a type of medicinal mushroom which can be found locally as well as other countries in Southeast Asia and China
Liquid fennentation facility refers to the facility where the liquid fermentation process is carried out
Liquid fennentation is a process which consists of growing cells in a liquid medium. This process is utilised to grow medicinal mushroom cells
Liquid-solid separation is the separation of solid material or yield from its liquid medium or environment
Lentinula edodes or Shitake Mushroom is a type of medicinal mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries
MAL is registration number for products which have been approved by the DCA for sale or use in Malaysia, based on safety evaluation tests
Maitodextrin is an organic substance which is derived from paltial hydrolysis of starch, and used in the manufacturing ofhealth supplement products as fillers
Medicinal mushroom are mushrooms with therapeutic properties or health benefits
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DEFINITIONS (Cont’d)
Medium
Medium or Functional­claim
Mycelium
Natto kinase
Non-herbal supplement
ODM
OEM
Silk peptide
Spray drying Stevia Strain Strain propagation
Solid state fermentation method A medium is used to accelerate growth of cells and typically comprises essential nutrients for growth. Examples of medium, include water, potassium and glucose
Medium or functional-claim is a type of health supplement claim, which refers to a particular health supplement product’s ability to maintain and enhance the structure or function of the human body, and excludes claims related to diseases
Mycelium is the end product of the fermentation of medicinal mushrooms, and used as an active ingredient in the manufacturing of C. sinensis-based health supplements
Natto kinase is an enzyme extracted and purified from fermented soybeans, and is known for its benefits of promoting blood circulation and blood pressure regulation. Natto kinase is used as an active ingredient in the manufacturing of health supplement products
Non-herbal supplement refers to dietary and nutritional supplement which is manufactured from non-herbal active ingredients such as fish collagen, fish oil and silk peptide, and is used to boost an individual’s nutritional intake and/or which offer the potential of improved health. It is typically found in tablet and capsule forms
Original design manufacturer involves undertaking the entire product development process, from product formulation and sourcing of active ingredients, supplies and consumables, to manufacturing and/or product packing
Original equipment manufacturer involves undertaking the manufacturing and/or product packing activities. Product formulations are developed by the customer, and customers may provide the active ingredients, supplies and consumables used in the manufacturing process
Silk peptide is an active ingredient utilised in the manufacturing of health supplement products. It is essentially a mixture of protein with tissue regeneration properties and is thus known to enhance skin health
Spray drying is a dehydration process in a hot temperature environment
Stevia is used in the manufacturing of health supplement products as an organic calorie-free sugar substitute
Strain is an in vitro culture initiated by asexual reproduction from a single cell. A strain is a population of genetically homogenous cells
Strain propagation is the breeding of strains from the parent strain, which results in the multiplication of the parent strain
Solid state fermentation method is a biomolecule manufacturing process which are mostly metabolites generated by microorganisms grown on a solid support selected for this purpose. This technology for the culture of microorganisms is an alternative to liquid or submerged fermentation, used predominantly fo industrial purposes
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DEFINITIONS (Cont’d)
Traditional herbal medicine
Traditional herbs
Polyethylene Terephthalate : or PET
Psyllium husk
Yield Traditional herbal medicine refers to the use of herbal supplements based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, for the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness
Traditional herbs refer to herbal plants which are believed or traditionally used by different cultures in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness
PET is a thermoplastic polymer resin used as a material in the packing of health supplement products
Psyllium husk is a concentrated source of dietary fibre which acts as a natural laxative and vital for good bowel health, as well as used in treatment of chronic constipation
Yield refers to mycelium in its solid form
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