Technical Terms

“2G/2.5G” “2G/2.5G” “3G” “access” “ADSL” “air-interface” “AMPS”
“ARPU” “ASON” “ASP” “ATUR” “Average Monthly Churn”
Second generation or 2G refers to the digital wireless communications systems. GSM is one of the most widely used 2G mobile systems. 2.5G uses packet switching technology and offers high speed data transmission rates of up to 115 kbps. 2G mobile systems can be upgraded to become 2.5G mobile systems. GPRS is an example of a 2.5G system. Third generation digital wireless communications system which uses packet switching technology and offers higher speed data transmission rates (between 144 kbps to two Mbps) than available under 2G and 2.5G. CDMA2000 and WCDMA are 2 of the leading 3G technologies that are currently being developed. Point at which entry is gained into a circuit or a network interconnection; may be switched or dedicated connection. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, a digital subscriber line of copper loop enhanced technologies, which is asymmetric, providing faster transmission rates downstream than upstream. It is suited to fast internet access where requests are for web pages and multimedia. It is not suited for videoconferencing and 2-way file transfer, as these require symmetric communication. The radio interface between a mobile telephone and a base station.
Advanced Mobile Phone System, an analog mobile telephone standard used in America and some parts of Asia. A method of storing, processing and transmitting information through the continuous variation of a signal. Average monthly revenue per average user. Automatically Switched Optical Network Applications service provider Automatic Telephone Using Radio The total number of disconnections or deactivations from the network, either voluntary or involuntary, in a period divided by the cumulative or average number of subscribers at the end of the period, divided by the number of months in the period, expressed as a percentage. Part of the communications network that provides connection between switches.
A measure of the size of the frequency band. The greater the bandwidth, the greater the information carrying capacity. Bandwidth is expressed in hertz for analogue devices and in bits per second for digital devices. The smallest amount of information that can be transmitted representing a 1 or O. It is the basic unit for data communications. 439
“BSC” or “Base station controller” “BSCS” “BSS” “BTS” or “Base transceiver
stations” “CATV” “COMA” “COMA One” “CDMA2000” “cell” “channels” “circle” “circuit switching” “content” “CPP” “CSD” Weighted average of prepaid and postpaid ARPU. Transmission capacity typically having a bandwidth greater than 3 or 4 Mbps; capable of high speed data transmission. Equipment used in a mobile telecommunications network for controlling call set-up, signalling and maintenance functions as well as the set of radio channels of one or more base stations. Business Support and Control System Base system subsystem Fixed transceiver equipment in each cell of a cellular telecommunications network that communicates by radio signal with user’s handsets in that cell. Cable television Code Division Multiple Access, a modulation technique using spread spectrum that allows mUltiple users to share the same frequency spectrum. Code Division Multiple Access One, a COMA technology developed in the United States for 2G mobile systems. Code Division Multiple Access 2000, a COMA technology being developed in the United States for 3G mobile systems. CDMA2000 is designed to be backward compatible with COMA One. The basic geographical unit of a cellular mobile system; represents the radio frequency coverage area in the mobile system resulting from operation of a single multiple channel set of base station frequencies. A unique radio frequency that is used for communication between subscriber units and cell site base stations. A term used in India to denote a cellular zone as defined by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. Within each circle, telephone calls are treated as local calls, while across circles, calls are treated as long-distance calls. Typically, a cellular circle is the entire state, with a few exceptions like Mumbai, Goa and Uttar Pradesh (which is a state but divided into multiple circles). A method of transmitting voice or date which involves setting up a cell using switches and reserving the circuit for such use until the cell is terminated. Information in the form of text, image, sound or video. Calling Party Pays; a billing and settlement system where the calling party is charged for the calls made. Circuit Switched Data; the transmission of data using circuit switching technology. 440
“DCS” “digital” “domain name” “DSL” “DTH”
tle_” “E1 capacity” “EDGE” “EGO” “equal access” “ERC” A data transmission technique whereby information is segmented and routed in discrete data envelopes called “packets,” each with its own appended control information for routing, sequencing and error checking. Digital Cellular System, a mobile communications-based PCN network. A method of storing, processing and transmitting information through the use of distinct electronic or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. Digital transmission and switching technologies employ a sequence of these pulses to represent information as opposed to the continuously variable analog signal. Compared to analog networks, digital networks allow for greater capacity, lower interference, protection against eavesdropping and automatic error correction. A unique name which identifies the location of a website on the internet. Digital subscriber line; a family of technologies that provides high bandwidth transmission over standard twisted copper wires (regular telephone lines). Direct to home Electronic In digital telecommunications, where a single physical wire can be used to carry many simultaneous voice conversations, worldwide standards have been created and deployed. The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) standardised the E-carrier system which is widely used in almost all countries outside the United States, Canada and Japan. The E-carrier standards form part of the PDH where groups of E1 circuits may be bundled onto higher capacity links between telephone exchanges or countries. This allows a network operator to provide a private end-to-end E1 circuit between subscribers in different countries that share single high capacity links in between. In practice, only E1 (30 circuit) and E3 (480 circuit) versions are used. E1 with a transmission speed of 2048 kbps are very common in most telephone exchanges and are used to connect to medium and large companies, to remote exchanges and in many cases between exchanges. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution; a technology which provides up to 3 times the data capacity of GPRS. EDGE allows the delivery of advanced mobile services such as the downloading of video and music clips, full multimedia messaging, high speed colour internet access and e-mail on the move. External Gateway Operator The concept of equal access is that users can select different fixed line network operators and/or international operators to provide domestic, long-distance and international services, typically by dialling a discrete access number. Extended range cells 441
“FDD” “Fiber optic cable”
“FLP” “Frequency band”
“Gbps” “GGSN”
“GHz” or “Gigahertz” “GMSC”
“GPRS” or “General Packet Radio Service” “GSM” or “Global System for : Mobile Communications” “GTP” “HLR” “HSDPA” or “High speed downlink packet access” “HSIA” Erlang is a measure of telephone traffic. 1 Erlang is equal to 1 full hour of use of 1 voice circuit. Erlang per square kilometre is used as a measure of total traffic density usage per square kilometre. Frequency division duplex A transmission medium constructed from extremely pure and· consistent glass through which digital signals are transmitted as pulses of light. Fiber optic cables offer greater transmission capacity and lower signal distortion than traditional copper cables. Frequency Load Planning A specified range of frequencies. Frequency is the number of times per second that a wave (e.g. electromagnetic wave) oscillates or swings back and forth in a complete cycle from its starting point to its end point. 1 billion bits per second Gateway GPRS Support Node; in a GPRS mobile network, the GGSN converts incoming data packets arriving from the internet from TCP/IP to GTP and outgoing data packets from GTP to TCP/IP. A measure of frequency. 1 GHz equals 1 billion cycles per second. Gateway Mobile Switching Centre; a main mobile switching centre that connects a mobile network to other fixed and mobile networks. A standard for mobile telecommunications which supports a wide range of bandwidths and is particularly suited for sending and receiving data including e-mail and large volumes of data. A digital mobile telecommunications system standardised by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute based on digital transmission and mobile network architecture with roaming in use throughout Europe, in Japan and in various other countries. GSM systems operate in the 900 MHz (GSM 900), 1900 MHz (GSM 1900) and 1800 MHz (GSM 1800) frequency bands. GPRS Tunnelling Protocol; the protocol used in a GPRS network. Home Location Register; a database in a mobile network which records information relating to the subscriber such as current and most recently used network and location area. An evolution path of 3G enhancement with theoretical peak data rates up to 14.4Mbps and increased spectral efficiency. High Speed Internet Access 442
“ICX” “100” or “International Direct Dialling” “I LOTS” “IMAP” “IMT-2000”
“INMS” “interconnection”
“100” “IP” or “Internet Protocol”
“‘SP” or “Internet Service Provider” “IVR” iBurst is a mobile broadband wireless access system that was first developed by ArrayComm, and subsequently adopted as the High Capacity -Spatial Division Multiple Access (HC-SDMA) radio interface standard (ATIS-0700004-2005) by the Alliance of Telecommunications Industry Solutions (“ATIS”). The standard was prepared by ATIS’ Wireless Technology and Systems Committee’s (WTSC) Wireless Wideband Internet Access subcommittee and has been accepted as an American National Standard. Interconnection exchange operators The ability to dial a call from one country to another country without the assistance of a telephone operator by dialling an international prefix. International long distance telecommunications services Internet message access protocol International Mobile Telecommunications 2000; a set of international standards established by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for 3G mobile communications systems. Intelligent Network Integrated network management system Practice of allowing a competing telephone operator to connect its network to the network or network elements of certain other telephone operators to enable the termination of phone calls made by subscribers of the competing telephone operator’s network to the subscribers of the other telephone operator’s network. The interconnection of servers worldwide that provides communications and application services to an international base of business, consumers, education, research, government and other organisations. Information-on-Demand A standard that keeps track of network addresses for different nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognises incoming messages. International Private Leased Circuits. A point-to-point private line used for internet access, business data exchange, video conferencing and any other form of telecommunications to communicate inter offices internationally. Integrated Services Digital Network which involves the digitisation of the telephone network, which permits voice, data, text, graphics, music, video, and other source material, to be transmitted over existing telephone wires. A company that provides access to the Internet. ISPs are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPS). Interactive voice response 443

ULAN” “last mile” “local loop” “Mbps” “MGW” “MHz” or “Megahertz” “microwave”
“MMS” or “Multimedia Messaging Service” “modem” “MOU” “MPEG-2” “MPEG-4” “MPLS” or “Multi Protocol Label Switching” “MPP” “MSC” or “Mobile Switching Centre” “MVNO”

“MW” 1 thousand bits per second Local Area Network; a short distance data communications network (usually within a bUilding). The wired or wireless medium that extend from the local exchange or node to the homes or offices of users. In most countries, the last mile is controlled by the incumbent fixed-line operator. The wired and wireless connection from subscriber’s premises to the nearest telecommunication service prOVider’s central office. 1 million bits per second Media Gateways A measure of frequency. 1 MHz equals 1 million cycles per second. A means of transmitting signals through the air between microwave towers. A mobile telecommunications system that allows SMS messages to include graphics, audio or video components. A device or program that enables the computer to transmit data over telephone lines. To achieve this, the modem has to convert between analog and digital forms of transmission. Minutes of use Motion Picture Experts Group 2; the designation for a group of audio and visual coding formats used to encode audio visual (AV) broadcast signals by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable and direct broadcast satellite television systems. Motion Picture Experts Group 4; the designation for a group of audio and visual coding formats used to encode AV data for web (streaming media) and compact disc distribution, voice (telephone, Videophone), mixed media data (Video, audio and speech) and broadcast television applications. Tag SWitching -Increase speed of connections between LANS. Fixed length “label” act to instruct a router where to deliver the traffic. This eliminates the router to intelligently look for an address within the overhead of the message. Mobile Party Pays; also known as receiver party pays, or a billing and settlement system where the mobile user pays airtime on received calls as well as calls that user has initiated A switching centre in a mobile network that keeps track of users, processes calls and routes calls to users through BSCs. Mobile Virtual Network Operator Megawatt; or 1 million watts 444
“NGN” “Node B”
“NSS” “PABX” “packet switching”
“POTs” “protocol”
“PSTN” or “Public Switched Telephone Network” “real-time” “roaming” Any interconnected group or system. More specifically, a network is any method of sharing information between 2 systems (human or mechanical). Next Generation Network A term used in universal mobile telecommunications system to denote the BTS in 3G systems. Node B contains radio frequency transmitter(s) and the receiver(s) used to communicate directly with the mobiles, which move freely around it. Network switching subsystem Private automated branch exchange A method of transmitting voice, data and video using data network. Unlike the public switched telephone network which uses circuit switching, packet switched networks do not reserve a circuit between end points. Instead they break up messages or files into small packets. Each message packet may take a different route from origin to destination, travelling along network circuits that are shared with packets from other messages. Personal Communications Network; a digital mobile service operating on the 1800 MHz frequency based on the GSM1800 (DCS1800) standard. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy; an asynchronous multiplexing scheme in the sense that the different tributary channels do not have to be clock synchronised between them and with the aggregate channel. A centralised and very stable network clock is unnecessary, avoiding the problems of clock stability, recovery and distribution. The consequence is the implementation complexity of cross connecting the aggregate channels, with demultiplexing and remultiplexing at each cross connect node. Post Office Protocol 3; the most recent version of a standard protocol for receiving electronic mail. POP3 is a clienUserver protocol in which electronic mail is received and held for you by your internet server. A website or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as electronic mails, forums and search engines. Plain old telephone service; refers to the standard telephone network. The conventions used in a network for establishing communications comparability between terminals and for maintaining the line discipline while they are connected to the network. The international telephone system which carries analog voice data. Systems that respond to input immediately. The mobile telecommunications feature that permits subscribers of one network to use their mobile handsets and telephone numbers when in a region covered by another operator’s network. 445


lIserverfl “SGSN” “SIM” or “Subscriber Identity Module” “SMS” or “Short Messaging Service” “STK” “STM” “switch” “TCP” “TCPIIP” “TOO” “TDMITDMA” “trunk” “USO” “USSD” Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 3 Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 4 A shared computer on a LAN that provides services to other computers in the network. Serving GPRS Support Node; the equivalent of the MSC in a GPRS network. An electronic card inserted into a mobile handset that identifies the subscriber to a network. The SIM card contains the personal identification number of the subscriber and identifies the subscriber’s network. A mobile communications service which allows users to send alphanumeric messages from one mobile handset to another either directly or via a message centre operator. In GSM systems, such message can have a maximum of 160 characters. SIM Application Toolkit Synchronous Transport Mobile A device used to set up and route telephone calls either to the number called or to the next switch along the path. They may also record information for billing and control purposes. Transmission Control Protocol; a protocol that manages a connection between 2 systems for the exchange of data by breaking up data into packets and sequencing the packets. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; a widely used protocol for the internet which is used to break up data into packets then sequence and address each packet for transmission across the internet. The data packets are reassembled at the receiving end based on the sequencing information inscribed on each data packet. Time division duplex Time Division MUltiplexing/Time Division Multiple Access; a technology where each remote terminal has an assigned out-bound TOM channel for transmission and any carrier for a remote site is received by every other remote terminal in the network. The remote terminal’s receive system has to accept or reject incoming signals on the basis of the header information in the received signal. A group of circuits that carry call traffic in and out of the switch. Transmission Universal service obligations Unstructured supplementary service data 446
“VLR” “VoIP” or “Voice over Internet Protocol” “VPN” “VSAT” or “Very Small Aperture Terminal” “WAP” “WAP-STK” “WBA” “WCDMA” “web-hosting” “WiBro” “WiFi” The provision of collective access and/or individual access to basic telephony and internet access service in a USP target. USP area in Malaysia means an underserved area and/or an underserved group within the community. Underserved area means an area where the penetration rate for PSTN subscribers in Malaysia is 20% below the national penetration rate; or any locality where, in the opinion of MCMC, applications services are not sufficiently available to the community at large. Underserved group within the community means a group of people linked by similar characteristics from a socio-cultural or economic perspective, within a served area, who do not have collective access and/or individual access to basic telephony and internet access service. Visitor Location Register; a database in a mobile network which stores geographical locations of users which are temporarily within an MSC’s coverage. A category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls. VolP presently does not offer the same quality telephone service as direct telephone connections. Virtual private network A station used in satellite communication of voice, data and video signals. A VSAT consists of a transceiver and a device that is placed indoors to interface with the end user’s communication device. Wireless Application Protocol; an open, global protocol that is designed to send web pages to wireless devices and allows users to access information instantly. Wireless Application Protocol through SIM Application Toolkit; a platform that allows users to access WAP-based content as SMS through the use of SIM card menus. Wireless Broadband Access Wideband Code Division Multiple Access; a CDMA technology adopted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute for 3G mobile systems and is designed to be backward compatible with the GSM standard. The commercial housing and maintenance of web pages and websites for another party. WiBro stands for Wireless Broadband, which is a wireless broadband internet technology being developed by the South Korean telecoms industry. WiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity and is used to define any of the wireless technology in the IEEE 802.11 specification -including (but not necessarily limited to) the wireless protocols 802.11 a, 802.11 b, and 802.11g. 447
“WiMax” WiMax stands for Worldwide Inter-operability for Microwave Access, which is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from pOint-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. It is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which is also called WirelessMAN. “WLAN” Wireless Local Area Network “WLL” Wireless Local Loop “WWW” world wide web; a worldwide network of servers that uses a special communications protocol called the hypertext transport protocol (HTTP) to link different servers throughout the internet and permits communication of graphics, video and sound. “xDSL” A family of DSL technology using copper loop enhanced technologies used for high speed data transmission over copper telephone wires. x represents different kind of DSL technologies, such as ADSL and Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SSDL). 448

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