Technical Terms

accommodation workboatlworkbarge
appraisal drilling
bareboat charter
basin BASS bbr
boe boepd bpd brownfield Bureau Veritas
cabotage American Bureau of Shipping, a United States classification society which has established rules and regulations for the classification of seagoing vessels or equipment
Vessel used generally in offshore construction support to provide accommodation and catering services for the construction crews as well as work and maintenance space on the vessel deck, Often referred to as “f1oatels” in the offshore O&G segment
Anchor handling tug, used to support offshore barges in laying out their anchors and retrieving their anchors from location to location, serve as standby duty for the barges and able to tow them away in case of emergency. A prime mover for the barges
Anchor handling towing support, used to provide logistic support 10 offshore oil rigs, production platforms and other offshore installations, to tow rigs, barges and mobile structures from location to location as well as making sure their anchors are well placed in suited position
American Petroleum Institute, a United States trade association, whose members comprise corporations involved in the O&G industry. Its programs include producing standards, recommended practice, specification codes and technical publications that cover each segment of the O&G industry
A procedure where well drilling is used to establish the physical extent, the amount of reserves and the likely production rate of a newly discovered field
A charter where the charterer is provided a vessel without a crew for a period of time, during which the charterer bears the operating costs of and responsibility for the vessel
A large-scale sedimentary structural formation which has undergone subsidence and infilling by sedimentation
Barber Ship Management System, the information technology system used in fleet management
Barrel, a unit of measure for oil and petroleum products. One barrel is equivalent to about 158,987 litres
Brake horse power, a measure of an engine’s horsepower before the loss in power caused by amongst others, gearbox and other auxiliary components
Barrels of oil equivalent, a unit 01 energy based on the approximate energy release by burning 1 barrel of crude oil
Barrels of oil equivalent per day, a measure of O&G production volume
Barrels per day, a measure of oil output, represented by the number of barrels of oil produced in a single day
An area that has been affected by previous projects and is likely to need redevelopment
Bureau Veritas SA, a French classification society
In admiralty law, refers to restrictions on carriage of cargo between two points within a country by a vessel registered in another country, Permission to engage in cabotage is, in general, strictly restricted in every country
construction vessel
crude oil
OCR or day-rates
deadweight tonne
deepwater DGPS
ONV downstream DP
drilling rig E&P EOR
EPIC Total set of greenhouse gases emissions caused by an asset, event, product or organisation
A ship class notation that stipulates requirements that reduce a ship’s environmental impact by controlling and limiting operational emissions and discharges
Natural gas reserve that contains liquid hydrocarbons. The presence of the liquefied hydrocarbons win be the result of extreme temperature and pressure conditions in the reservoir
A vessel that has mUltiple roles designed for supporting offshore construction in varying water depths. Primarily used for offshore construction and lifting, this vessel may also have the capability to undertake pipe-lay operations, accommodation and other related activities
A mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons that has yet to be refined
Daily charter rates or the amount of money it costs to hire an asset for a day
A measure of how much weight a vessel is engineered and designed to carry. It is the sum of the weights of cargo, fuel, fresh water, ballast water, proVisions and crew
Water depths of 300 metres and more
Digital global positioning systems, a system that provides reliable location and time information where there is an unobstructed line of sight to 4 or more global positioning system satellites
Derrick lay barge, a vessel (commonly a barge or ship) which has been installed with a crane for the lifting of heavy structures in the marine environment, as well as having flexible and/or rigid pipeline installation capabilities
Det Norske Veritas, a Norwegian classification society
Aspects of the O&G industry that relale to refining and distribution
Dynamic positioning’-a ·computer-conlrolled syslem to automatically maintain a vessel’s position and heading by using its propellers and thrusters. The dynamic positioning level (e.g. DP2, DP3) indicates the degree and redundant systems built into the safety system to remove redundancy or failure of the system
A structure that has the capability to drill wells
Exploration and production
Enhanced oil recovery is a generic term for techniques used for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field. It is sometimes refered to as “improved oil recovery” or “tertiary recovery”
Engineering, procurement and construction, a form of contracting arrangement whereby the contractor will design the product, procure the necessary materials and construct it, either in-house or by subcontracting part of the work
Engineering, procurement, installation and construction. Similar to EPC, but in addition, the contractor is also expected to install the product in its planned location
xxi exploration drilling
feedstock first oil
flaring flow-lines
FMS fossil fuel
gas field greenfield harsh environment
heavy lift vessel
heavy oil
hull Engineering, procurement, installation, construction and commissioning, as per EPIC, but the contractor is also contracted to commission (involving preparatory activities to commence operations) the product
A procedure where exploration wells are drilled to evaluate the presence of hydrocarbon
Floating drilling production storage and offloading vessel, a vessel that is able to drill into the seabed in the offshore environment, produce hydrocarbons from the reselVe, process the hydrocarbons and store the oil and offload the stored products as and when required
Raw material that is needed for an industrial process
The initial processed oil that is pumped into .the storage tanks of the FPSO after initial slart-up of the production
The process in which excess gas is burnt at the platform
The surface pipes through which oil travels from the well to the processing centre
Fleet management selVices
Hydrocarbon deposits that formed in the earth from living matter and are used for fuel
Floating production, storage and offloading system, an offshore system comprising a large tanker or s·lmilar vessel equipped with a high-capacity production facility. FPSOs are normally moored at the bow to the seabed to maintain a geo-stationary position, and selVe as a fixed point for risers to connect subsea wellheads to on-board processing/production, storage and offloading systems. Produced oil is periodIcally offloaded to smaller shuttle tankers, which transports the oil to onshore facilities for further processing
Floating storage and offloading vessel, is similar to an FPSO, but the FSO is not designed and installed with the topsides to process hydrocarbons. but is only designed to store processed producls in the offshore environment
A deposit which is rich in gas
An area that has not been affected by prior projects
Refers to the extreme sea and climatic conditions, such as 4 to 6 metre wave heights, as normally experienced in deepwater locations
Refers to a vessel with a crane or other lifting device designed to lift and move loads in excess of 200 metric tonnes that cannot be handled by normally equipped ships. These vessels are primarily used in the offshore environment for construction or abandonment activities or at ports or yards for lifting or installing large pieces of equipment
A dense and viscous oil which is difficult to extract and contains a high proportion of bitumen
Health, safety and environmental
The frame or body of a ship or boat. exclusive of masts, yards, sails, and rigging
xxii hydrocarbon Independent intervention
local content

marginal field Any organic compound that cOfltains only carbon and hydrogen. Examples include benzene and methane
Independent oil company, refers to small private or public oil companies that are not controlled by a government
The process of performing major maintenance or remedial treatments on an oj[ or gas well
International oil company, refers to large private or public oil companies that have upstream, midstream and downstream capabilities, such as Royal Dutch Shell pic and The Exxon Mobil Corporation
Inspection, repair and maintenance, refers to the function of carrying out maintenance activities of underwater infrastructure in the offshore environment
International Safety Management is a code set out to provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention
International Organizalion for Standardization
A method for installing subsea pipelines in deepwater where pipe stalks, with a length of up to 6 joints, are upended and welded to the seagoing pipe in a near vertical ramp
Liquefied natural gas; naturally occurring gas that has been cooled to a temperature of -160°C at normal atmospheric pressure in order to condense the gas into liquid, which can be more easily stored, handled and transported. One metric tonne of LNG is equivalent to 1,400 cubic metres of natural gas at normal temperature and pressure
Describes the requirement for a certain proportion of the workload of a project to be undertaken within the country where such project is located, rather than being provided from the global market
Liquefied petroleum gas, propane and butanes liquefied under low pressure. LPG is a gaseous fuel stored under pressures at refineries and sold in pressurised cylinders for domestic and industrial uses
Lost time injury, a work-related injury or illness that renders the injured person unable to return to work on the next working day after the day of the injury and illness
A form of contract or project pricing, where assets, services, operational and other costs are ~Iumped” together in a total contract value or rate
A term given to the larger IOCs, i.e. BP pIc, Royal Dulch Shell pic, Total SA, Chevron Corporation, The Exxon Mobil Corporation and ConocoPhillips Company
Seabed structure which gathers hydrocarbon products from other seabed structures, primarily satellite wells, which are then transferred to the tieback host through flowlines
An oil field that may not be economically viable due to relatively low hydrocarbon reserves, but could be commercially viable as a result of technical or economic developments or changes
xxiii midstream mooring syslem
multibeam survey
oil field OSV
petrochemicals piled platform
pipelay vessel
production platform
production rate PSV
reserves reservoir
A distinct body of both domestic law which governs maritime activities, and private international law which governs the relationships between private entities which operate vessels on the oceans
Aspects of the O&G industry relating to transport and trading
A system to secure a vessel in a particular place by cables, anchors or lines
A seismic survey method using a tightly packed array of narrow individual beams that provide floor mapping with high angular resolution and accuracy
National oil company, O&G company owned or controlled by a national government, typically having special rights or access to its local market
Oil and gas
Operation and maintenance
Oilfield services, refers to services required to maximise the extraction of hydrocarbons in the marginal field and EOR business
A deposit which is rich in oil
Offshore support vessel. refers to any vessel, boat or ship whose main function is to support the offshore O&G operations, which includes movement of equipment or structures, as well as transportation of materials and personnel
Chemical products derived from petroleum
A type of offshore platform used for production, which is fixed in location by foundations which have been oiled into the seabed
A vessel whose primary function is listed as laying pipelines throughout the world. Includes barges and ship shaped vessels with differing capabilities and laying methods that include S-Lay, J­Lay and the deployment of reels and towers
A large structure with the capability to drill wells and subsequently extract and process hydrocarbons
The amount of oil or gas that a well is producing per unit time
Platform support vessel, designed to supply offshore oil platforms and used for transportation of goods and personnel to and from offshore oil platforms and other offshore structures
Research and development
Risk-based service contract, an incentive based service contract, typically used for marginal fields and EOR schemes, whereby the oil company owns the oilfield, the reserves and any resulting production, and the contractor using its own resources and finances undertakes the capital and operating expenditures associated with developing the field and extracting the maximum hydrocarbons
Total estimated amount of producible oil and/or gas in an oil reservoir that can be brought to the surface
A porous and permeable subsurface rock formation that has accumulated produceabre hydrocarbons which are being trapped by overlaying rock. formations that have [ower permeability and porosity
xxiv S-Lay
satellite well
seismic survey
shallow water shore base
spread mooring
subsea template
subsea trees SURF
template time charter
topsides turnkey contract turret mooring
A pipe or assembly of pipes used to transfer produced fluids from the seabed to the suriace facilities or to transfer injection fluids, control fluids or lift gas from the suriace facilities and the seabed
A method for installing subsea pipelines in shallow and intermediate waters where onboard welded pipe joints leave the vessel horizontally and are guided by a ‘stinger’ (a structure on the back of the ship that supports the seagoing pipe string to control its bend radius)
Also called a ‘tie·back well’, is usually a single well drilled offshore to produce hydrocarbons from the outer fringes of a reservoir that cannot be produced via the primary development wells. Sometimes. several satellite wells may be drilled to maximise the extraction rates from marginal reservoirs
A subsuriace mapping method using sound waves to determine SUbsurface rock structures that may contain hydrocarbons
Water depths of less than 300 metres
An operational base located onshore, from which location the vessels and offshore services are supported. ihe shore base will, among other things, organise the provision of crew and supplies for the vessel, as well as organise spare parts or equipment
A mooring system which is made by a symmetrical arrangement of anchors at the bow and at the stern that allow the ship to stay on a fixed location with a fixed heading
Straight support vessel, a vessel that is primarily used in shallow water to transport equipment in support of offshore production and activities
A subsea template is a large steel structure which is used as a base for various subsea structures such as wells and subsea trees and manifolds
A subsea tree is a piping manifold fixed to a wellhead of a completed well and controls the production of the well
Subsea umbilicals, risers and flowlines, refers to the infrastructure required for oil and/or gas produclion in the offshore environment and found between the sea bed and th’e waterline
Transport and installation, refers to services provided in the combined activities of transporting and installing equipment offshore
A structure which is used as a base for other subsea facilities to be fitted to
A charter where the charterer is provided a vessel with a crew at its disposal for a period of time
iension leg platform, a floating production structure which is tethered to the sea bed by steel tendons
Oil and/or gas production and processing related modules that are installed onto a floating structure (vessel, barge, etc)
A business arrangement where the scope is defined and the project is delivered in a complete status
A mooring system comprising a geostatic part attached to the seabed and a rotating part integrated in the hull, which are connected and allow the ship to weathervane around the turret
xxv ultra-deepwater
umbilical unconventional gas water depth
well preparation work-over Water depths of generally 1,500 metres and more
A control line with electric, hydraulic and/or chemical injection functions
Gas that has been extracted using unconventional techniques
Units, given in metres, refers to the distance between the sea floor and the water surface
The procedure of preparing the seabed area and the well-casing at the sea-floor prior to initial drilling of a well
The repair or stimulation of an existing production well for the
purpose of restoring, prolonging or enhancing the production of
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