Terminologies

ABS – Anti-lock Braking System

AC Motor – Alternate Current Motor

Accuracy  – The extent to which a machine vision system can correctly measure or obtain a true value of a feature. The closeness of the average value of the measurements to the actual dimension

Active Server Page (ASP) – A web enhancement tool that was developed and distributed by Microsoft. ASP is simply a text file script with the extension .asp containing HTML. client and server side script

AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port is an interface specification developed by Intel Corporation. AGP is based on PCI, but is designed specially for the throughput demands of 3-D graphics. Rather than using the PCI bus for graphics data, AGP introduces a dedicated point-to-point channel so that the graphics controller can directly access main memory. The AGP channel is 32 bits wide and runs at 66 MHz

Algorithms – Step-by-step procedure or method for solving a problem

Ampere – A unit of measurement for electric current

Analog signal – Analog signal allows for transmission of information by modulating a continuous transmission signal, either through amplifying a signal’s strength or varying its frequency. Analog signals are typically used in audio and video transmission

Antenna tuner – A device connected between a radio transmitter/transceiver and its antenna, and is used fOT the purpose of enhancing the transfer of power current between them. An antenna tuner functions like a transformer in which it can adjust the resistance of the electric circuit an antenna presents to match the electric current of the transceiver

ARM – The ARM architecture is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computer processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. Because of their power saving features, ARM CPUs are dominant in the mobile electronics market, where low power consumption is a critical design goal

ASIC – Application Specific Integrated Circuit is a customised electronic device for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use

ASSP – Application Specific Standard Products is a semiconductor device designed for specific customer or produced as standard products

Automated Testing Equipment or ATE – An apparatus which performs tests on electronics and semiconductor products

BGA – Ball Grid Array, a type of chip package, whereby the side of the IC which is to be mounted onto the circuit board and is covered or partly covered by solder balls. These balls are the conducting points for the printed circuit boards, which the IC is placed on.

BIOS – Basic Input Output System

BIST – Built-in self test

Bluetooth – An open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over
short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions) from
fixed and mobile devices

BOM – Bill of Material

Box-Build – An assembly/manufacturing process for the production of end­
use electronic devices

Bushing – A fixed or removable cylindrical lining added to an opening to constrain, guide, or reduce abrasion

C++ – An object-oriented programming language based on the C language

CAD – Computer Aided Design – A computer technology/software for design and design documentation. CAD software replaces manual drafting with an automated process

CAM – Computer Aided Manufacturing

Capacitor – A device used to store electric charge, and it consists of one
(1) or more pairs of conductors separated by an insulator

Capex – Capital Expenditure

CCD – Charge Coupled Device, imaging device based on a silicon Metal Oxide Semiconductor capacitor structure

CCFL(s) – Cold-Cathode Fluorescent Lamp(s)

CE – Abbreviation of French phrase “Conformite Europeene”, indicates product meets European Union for Standardization product safety testing requirements

CHMSL(s) – Center High Mounted Stop Lamp(s)

Class 10K cleanroom – Clean room controlled with quantity of sizes of 0.5 IJm particles
shall not exceed 10,000 count in flow rate of 0.1 feet3 / minute
per testing point

Class lOOK cleanroom – Clean room controlled with quantity of sizes of 0.5 IJm particles
shall not exceed 100,000 count in flow rate of 0.1 feet3 / minute
per testing point

CMM – Coordinate Measuring Machine, a quality control equipment to measure a part or component’s dimensions

CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor is a major class of integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in chips such as microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for a wide variety of analogue circuits such as image sensors, data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication

COT – Customer-Owned-Tooling. Both the logical and physical designs are owned by the customers, while fabrication and packaging I testing are done by the suppliers. Such model ensures customers with more control over schedules, design, cost and the entire development process. This is because they have a choice of foundries that they can select

CNC – Computer Numerical Control – A machine incorporated with computer numerical controls, automatic tool
changers, tool magazines and coolant systems, used in a milling/tapping process to remove unwanted materials from the workpiece or to make holes in the workpiece

COB – Chip-on-Board. A semiconductor assembly process wherein the
microchip or die is directly mounted on and electrically
interconnected to its final circuit board

Contact/Probe pins – A tiny object used to establish a connection between two (2) PCBs

Conversion kits – A collection of precision fixtures which allows a test handler to
accommodate different device sizes and types

Coordinate­ – A machine used in to accurately measure the physical geometrical
Measuring or CMM Machine characteristics of an object

Coplanarity – Defined as a unilateral tolerance zone measured upward from the seating plane. The solder balls are not all aligned with respect to the seating plane, and a tolerance for this misalignment is specified

CPU – Central Processing Unit

CPU – Central Processing Unit is a component in a digital computer that interprets computer program instructions and processes data

CRT – Cathode Ray Tube

CSP – Chip Scale Package, a single-die, direct surface mountable package, type of IC package

DC – Direct current, an electric current that flows in one direction steadily

Deburring – A process to remove unwanted excess material and smoothen rough edges or ridges of an object (usually a metal)

Decibel or dB – A unit of measurement for the ratio of intensity or power

Device Under Test or DUT – Any electronic device or assembly under test to determine the performance and proficiency

DFT – Design for test

Die (Plural for die is dice or dies) – An individual rectangular pattern on a wafer that contains circuitry to perform a specific function. The internal circuitry is made of thousands of tiny electronic parts. It refers to a semiconductor component or part that has not yet been packaged. Also known as IC or chip (see definition on IC)

Digital signal – Digital signal refers to an electrical signal which is transmitted in a bit pattern, Le. either in the state of “0” or “1”. An example of a device which uses digital signals is the computer

Digital signal processing or DSP – Any signal processing conducted on analog signals by digital means (as opposed to Analog signal processing where the signal processing is carried out by an analog process)

DIMM – Dual in-line memory module, a series of random accessed memory ICs mounted on a printed circuit board and usually used for personal computers

Diode – A semiconductor device with two (2) electrodes, Le. anode and cathode. It conducts electric current in a single direction by blocking electric current flowing from the opposite direction

Discrete semiconductor/device – Most basic electronic component with just one circuit element, such as resistor, capacitor, inductor, diode, transistor or vacuum tube

Dowel pin – Objects engineered to tight tolerance limits, which are inserted into holes (either wider or narrower than the pin) for use as precise locating or alignment devices

DRC – Design Rule Check provides design guidelines and rules to designer to determine whether a physical layout design of a chip satisfies a series of recommended parameters or design rules before signing­off the final database. The check is to verify the design and ensure the design can be fabricated by the foundry

DSP – Digital Signal Processing is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. DSP and analogue signal processing are subfields of signal processing

DSP – Digital Signal Processing. the study of signals in digital representation and the processing methods of these signals

DVB – Digital Video Broadcasting is a suite of internationally accepted open standards for digital television

DVD – Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality

EDA – Electronic Design Automation is an application software for the development of IC and systems

Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum – A vast band of energy frequencies extending from radio waves to gamma waves to x-rays etc ranging from very low frequencies to extremely high frequencies

Electronic design automation software or EDA software – A type of software tool for designing electronic systems such as PCBs and integrated circuits

EMS – Electronic Manufacturing Services, a term used for companies that design, test, manufacture, distribute and provide other services for electronic component assembly

End-users – Semiconductor manufacturers that produces the IC. These companies normally produce the machines/handlers from OEM (see definition) to perform the functions mentioned above.

Engineering plastics – A group of plastic materials that are used in applications generally requiring higher performance in terms of heat resistance, chemical resistance, impact fire retardancy or mechanical strength, compared to the more widely used commodity plastics (such as polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (“PVC”), polypropylene and polyethylene)

ESD – Electrostatic discharge, an electric current, such as a spark that is triggered when the potential difference a threshold value

ERP SYSTEM – Enterprise Resource Planning System, multi-module application software that integrates activities across functional departments, from product planning, parts purchasing, inventory control, product distribution, order tracking, to Finance and Human Resources

Externalization Template library (XTL) Frame – XTL is a library of template classes and functions for reading/writing structured data to/from an external (platform independent) representation

FDT – Fieldbus Device Tool

Ferrous – A material which contains iron that are primarily used for their tensile strength and durability. Examples of ferrous materials include mild steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron and wrought iron

Fibreoptic transceiver – A devise that allows for the transmission of data using optical fiber rather than electrical wire. Optical fiber, also called fiber optic, refers to the technology associated with the transfer of information in light beams or pulses along solid transparent fibers or cables

Field-programmable-gate-array or FPGA – An integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer to a desired application or functionality after manufacturing, generally specified using a HDL

Frame – A complete video picture, representing a snapshot of a scene, with an effective exposure time of 40 miliseconds (“ms”) (Europe) or 33.3 ms (USA)

Frame grabber – A device which receives video from a camera, digitizes it, places it into memory, and makes the complete digitized image in memory available to the processor

Fuzzy logic – A type of logic that recognizes more than simple true and false values. It represents a departure from classical two-valued sets and logic, that use “soft” linguistic (e.g. large, small, hot, cold, warm) system variables and a continuous range of truth values in the. interval [0,1], rather than strict binary (true or false) decisions and assignments

GaN, InGaN, InGaAIP – LED Chemical Composition

GDS II – Graphic Design Station II is a database file format, which in the IC industry has been the de facto standard for IC layout data exchange

GHz – Gigahertz

GPS – Global positioning system, a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable location and time information

Grinding machine – A machine that performs very light cutting using abrasive wheel to remove material from the workpiece

Hand lids – A device used during the setup of manual test to secure a DUT in place

Hardware – Electronic image-processing equipment designed specifically for applications requiring high-speed operation. Probably of fixed / limited functionality

Hard-docking testing mechanism – Hard-docking testing mechanism connects devices-under­test with automated test equipment through a docking station

HB LED – High-Brightness Light Emitting Diode

HDL – Hardware description language

Heat sink – A device which keeps dissipation of heat a hot component cool by assisting in the dissipation of heat

High Speed Imaging – Image capture near, at or above 1800 parts per minute or (30 parts per second)

HSDPA – High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol

Integrated Circuit (IC) – An electronic circuit that consists of a single chip usually of silicon material with many components such as transistors, diodes and resistors fabricated on it

IC – Integrated Circuit, a miniaturised electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material

IC – Integrated Circuit, also known as semiconductor device or chips

ICT- Information and Communication Technology (sec definition on IT)

IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a technical professional association dedicated to advancing innovation and technological excellence for the benefit of humanity. It is designed to serve professionals involved in all aspects of the electrical, electronics, and computing fields and related areas of science and technology. Among its scope of offerings and services include the development of international standards that underpin many of today’s telecommunications, information technology, and power generation products and services

in – Inch

Inductor – A passive electronic component consisting of a wire loop or coil, which is able to temporarily store energy in a magnetic field in the coil

Industrial Automation Systems and Machinery – A set of machinery and equipment that are integrated to perform a series of manufacturing tasks automatically. The automated system utilizes computer software to control and coordinate all the different parts, mechanisms, movements and timing of actions. Part of the automation system may incorporate robotics, Vision system, sensors and conveyor transport systems to provide detection and varied movements

Integrated circuit -A set of semiconductor devices on a single thin plate (Le. chip) of semiconductor material, normal silicon

IC – Integrated Circuit is an integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip. It was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components

IDM – Integrated Device Manufacturer is a semiconductor company which designs, manufactures, and sells IC products. IDM is often used as a classification, to differentiate between a company which handles semiconductor manufacturing in-house, and a fabless company which outsources production to a third-party merchant foundry

IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pronounced “I-triple­E”. Founded in 1963, IEEE is an organization composed of engineers, scientists, and students. IEEE is best known for developing standards for the computer and electronics industry

Internet – A global computer network of interconnected commercial, educational and governmental networks that utilize a common communications protocol. Originally designed by the US Department of Defense so that a communication network could withstand a nuclear war and serve military institution worldwide, the Internet was first known as the ARPANet. A system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data communication services such as remote login, web surfing, file transfer, electronic mail, and newsgroup

Input/Output (I/O) – Any program, operation or device that transfers data to or from a computer and to or from a peripheral device. The transfer of data to and from the processor to memory, expansion slots and to the motherboard is also known as I/O

I/O – Input/Output or I/O is used to describe any program, operation or device that transfers data to or from a computer and to or from a peripheral device. Every transfer is an output from one device and an input into another

IP – Intellectual Property refers to the bUilding block for a chip in an IC industry

ISO – International Organisation for Standardisation

IT – Information Technology – refers to the broad range of technologies and applications that support the creation. processing, transmission, storage and management of digital information. IT includes hardware systems such as computers and network equipment, as well as software applications that run on computers

Java – A cross-platform programming language from Sun Microsystems that can be used to create animations and interactive features on World Wide Web pages. Java programs are embedded into HTML documents. Java is an interpreted language. This means that it is written for a piece of software that then interprets the code for the hardware/operating system. The Java Virtual Machine is the piece of software that interprets lava for different platforms

Jigs and Fixtures – Devices to hold and position a work piece as it guides, conlrols or limits a clltting tool

Kanban – A production concept related to lean and just-in-time production.

KeyIP – KeylP is Key ASIC IP library for IC and system development

KeyWare – Key ASIC design ware is a design component or IP that enables customers to improve the speed or power of their design

LAN – A Local Area Network is a communications network that serves users within a confined geographical area, usually contained within one or more floors of an entire building complex

LAN – Local Area Network is a geographically limited communication network that connects users within a defined area. A LAN is generally within a building or small groups of buildings and is managed and owned by a single enterprise

LCC – Leadless Chip Carrier. type of IC package

LCD – Liquid Crystal Display

lead – The metal connection that extends from a semiconductor device package 10 make contact with the printed circuit board

Leads/balls of an IC – Parts of an IC package which conducts electrical signals between the IC and the PCB on which the IC is placed. These parts may take the form of pins or tiny balls of solder

Lead count – The total number of leads on a semiconductor device

Lead frame – A flat metal part which has a place to mount a semiconductor die and leads which can accept bond wires to connect to the die. The principal component of many semiconductor packages

LED – Light emitting diode, a semiconductor light source

Light-emitting diode or LED – A two (2)-lead semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it

Low-noise amplifier – Low-noise amplifier is used to amplify weak signals

Machine Vision – The engineering of integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems for examining natural objects and materials, human artifacts and manufacturing processes, in order to detect defects and improve quality, operating efficiency and the safety of both products and processes. It is also used to control machines used in manufacturing

Machine Vision Inspection System – The automated process of visually inspecting a component or assembly for defects and/or measurement criteria using machine vision technology

MasterCam – A computer-aided manufacturing software program to produce mechanical drawings of parts, create three (3)-dimensional wire frame models and guide CNC machines tools in the manufacture of parts

MCOB – Multiple-Chip-on-Board. A semiconductor assembly process wherein multiple microchips or dies are directly mounted on and electrically interconnected to its final circuit board

MEMS – Micro electro mechanical system

MHz – Mega Hertz

Metrology – Equipment or process used to produce a measurement

Metrology – A science of measurement which includes all theoretical and practical measurement to validate data obtained from measuring equipment in terms of accuracy and precision

MicroC – Microcontroller

MicroP – Microprocessor

Micron (micrometer) – Unit of length. 1/1000 mm

Microprocessor – Microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer’s central processing unit on a single integrated circuit, or a few integrated circuits, so that it is able to receive and process digital data according to instructions stored in its memory, and provide results as output

Micro milling machine – A machine incorporated with CNC controls, used in a milling/tapping process to remove materials from smaller workpiece or to make holes in smaller workpiece

mil – thousandth of an inch

Milling – A machining process of cutting to remove material from the surface of the workpiece

Mixed signal – Mixed signal refers to a combination of both analog and digital signals in a single integrated circuit

MLF – Micro leadless frame, a type of chip package whereby the leads or contact points are exposed on the bottom of the chip package

MLP – Micro leadless package, a type of chip package whereby the leads or contact points arc exposed on the bottom of the chip package

mm – millimetres

MMX – Multimedia Extension Code, instruction set in CPU

Modular components – Components composed of separate components that can be connected together or separated

MP3 – MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 is a popUlar digital audio encoding, compression format, and algorithm, designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent audio, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners

Noise – Irrelevant or meaningless data resulting from various causes unrelated to the prime application requirements. In Machine Vision. noise is caused by varying ambient light (e.g. sun-light. fluorescent lubes providing environmental lighting), dirt on the widget, optics or light source, as well as the usual sources of noise in electronics equipment: earth loops. EM radiation, capacitative coupling, induction, etc.

Neural Network – A processing device, either an algorithm, or actual hardware, whose design was inspired by the design and functioning of animal brains and components thereof. Most neural networks have some sort of “training” rule whereby the weights of connections are adjusted on the basis of presented patterns. In other words, neural networks “learn” from examples and exhibit some structural capability for generalization

NPI – New product introduction

ODM – Original design manufacturer

OLED – Organic Light Emitting Diod

Optocoupler – A component which can transfer electrical signals between two (2) isolated circuits through the use of light

Optoelectronics – Optoelectronics refer to the use of electronic devices that can source, detect and control light

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) – Machine makers or automation companies which produces handlers/machines to perform testing, vision and/or taping. Our vision systems are usually integrated onto their machines as part of the equipment to handle the device/unit inspection.

Outsourced Semiconductor Assembly and Test Companies or OSAT – Companies that specialize in assembly, testing and packaging services for semiconductor

Packaged devices – Packaged devices refers to semiconductor integrated circuits which have been packaged in metal, plastic, glass, or ceramic casing that prevents physical damage and corrosion

PC – Personal Computer

PCB – A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate

PCB – Printed circuit board, used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) – A polymer-based board containing conductor tracks, which becomes an electrical circuit when components are attached/mounted and soldered to it. The components can either be soldered to the conductor tracks, or interconnected by means of wirebonds (chip and wire) or by solder bumps (flip chip)

PCBA – Printed circuit board assembly

PCle – Peripheral Component Interconnect Express is a computer system bus/expansion card interface format. It was designed as a much faster interface to replace PCI, PCI-X, and AGP interfaces for computer expansion cards and graphics cards

PDA – Personal Digital Assistant is a handheld computer that serves as an organiser for personal information. It generally includes at least a name and address database, to-do list and note taker. PDAs may be combined with cellphones and other wireless technologies, providing a mobile office for people on the go

PDA – Personal digital assistant, a mobile device which functions as a personal information manager

PDK – Process Development Kit is a tool kit that is released by foundry. It consists of software applets, design rule files, technology files and libraries. The PDK has to be released by foundry to enable the customers to design their products

Peripheral component interconnect extensions for Instrumentation or PXI – A modular electronic instrumentation platform used as a basis for developing automated test equipment, as well as other automation systems

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) – A handheld device that combines computing, telephone/fax and networking features. A typical PDA can function as a cellular phone, fax sender, and personal organizer. Many PDAs incorporate handwriting and/or voice recognition features. PDAs also are called palmtops, handheld computers, and pocket computers

Pitch – The center-to-center distance between adjacent leads on a package

Pixel or Picture Element – Smallest addressable portion of a digital image. Within the boundaries of a given pixel, the intensity and color can be considered constant

PLC – Programmable Logic Controller

PMP – Portable Multimedia Player is a self-reliant electronic device that is capable of storing and playing files in one or more media formats

Poka-yoke – A Japanese term that means “fail-safe” or “mistake-proofing”

Precision – The degree of spread or deviation between each measurement of the same part or feature

Precision engineering parts – Parts which are engineered to have exceptionally tight tolerance, reusable and remain stable while being used

Prism – An optical device with two or more non-parallel, polished faces from which light is either reflected or refracted. Often used to redirect light as in binoculars

Protocol – The rules, formats and functions governing communications and interfaces between components in a communications or computer system or network

PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride, a thermoplastic polymer

QA – Quality Assurance

QC – Quality Control

QFN – Quad flat no lead package, a type of chip package whereby the leads or contact points are exposed on the bottom of the chip package

QFP – Quad flat package, a type of chip package, which has leads extending from each of the four sides. Various versions exist in this class of chips with slightly differing specifications such as tbe Low Profile QFP (“LQFP”), Plastic QFP (“PQFP”) and Thin QFP (“TQFP”)

QMS – Quality management system

R&D – Research and development

RF – Radio Frequency, an audio and infrared electromagnetic wave frequency between

Radio frequency or RF – Frequency in which radio waves may be transmitted

Red-Green-Blue (RGB) – This is a three primary color system used for video color representation

Repeatability – The ability of a system to reproduce or duplicate the same measurement

Resistor – A resistor is an electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits

Resolution – Resolution is a measurement of the imaging system’s ability to reproduce object detail

RF connector – A RF connector is an electrical connector which is typically used with coaxial cables, and is designed to perform in high frequency, high power, low loss or extreme temperature situations. These connectors are usually used in wireless telecommunications applications

RF front-end devices – Consist of components receiving and processing incoming RF signals

RF power amplifier – A type of electronic amplifier which is used to convert and amplify a low-power RF signal into a stronger signal

RF switch – A device used to route high frequency signals, enabling signals to be routed from mUltiple instruments into a single or mUltiple devices under tests

RTL – Register Transfer Level is a way of describing the operation of a synchronous digital circuit. In RTL design, a circuit’s behavior is defined in terms of the flow of signals (or transfer of data) between hardware registers, and the logical operations performed on those signals

Semiconductor – A device made from material which has the electrical conductivity between that of a conductor (such as copper) and an insulator (such as glass). Semiconductors are technology enablers for electronic products such as memory chips, computers, mobile phones, home and personal appliances, as well as medical equipment

Sensor – A device which enables the detection of changes in quantities, and is able to measure, record, indicate or otherwise provide a corresponding output

SiP – System in Package. A package or module that has number of ICs enclosed in

Smart Camera – Self-contained vision system, contained in the camera body, including lens, image sensor, image processing and decision-making functions like pass/fail functions, interface electronics and software

SMT – Surface Mount Technology. A method for constructing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted directly onto the surface of PCBs

SMU – Source and Measurement Unit

SOC – System-on-a-chip

SoC – System-on-Chip is an integrated component of a collection of electronic systems into a single IC

SolidWorks – A CAD software program for three (3)-dimensional product design and engineering

SOI – Silicon-on-Insulator is a type of semiconductor fabrication technique developed by IBM. Unlike CMOS-based chips that are doped with impurities that enable a chip to store capacitance that must be discharged and recharged, SOI chips are formed by setting transistor on a thin silicon layer that is separated from the silicon substrate by an insulating layer of thin silicon oxide or glass, which minimises capacitance (or the energy absorbed from the transistor)

SOP – Standard Operating Procedures

SOP – Small outline package, which is rectangular-shaped chip usually used as memory module. Similar variants with different dimensions and characteristics exist such as Shrink Small SOP (“SSOP”) or Thin Shrink Small SOP (“TSSOP”)

SOT – Small outline transistor. which is a semiconductor device commonly used amplifier or an electrically controlled switch as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch

Source-measurement unit or SMU – A type of instrument which is capable of sourcing and measuring current and voltage, and is typically used in automated test equipment to perform these functions

Stiffeners : A device used to dock a PCB in place to ensure that it is in alignment with the test handler and/or tester during the testing of IC packages/wafers

Surface mount device – Electronic devices (such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, LEDs, integrated circuits, etc) mounted or soldered directly on the surface of PCBs

Systems Integration – Art of constructing a harmonious assembly of optical, lighting. mechanical hardware (transport mechanisms, jigs, mounts), electronics (opto-electronics. analogue and digital), software and environmental-protection enclosures, to produce a system that meets the agreed specification and is functionally and ergonomically acceptable to the users

TAP – Technical advisory panel

Tapping – A process of cutting or forming a surface inside a hole which acts as a nut, so that bolts can be screwed into the holes

Test sockets – A device which is placed on a PCB and are configured to receive and protect the leads/balls of an IC

Thresholding – Image-processing operation which converts a grey-scale image into a binary image, by setting all pixels above a defined value to white and all others to black. Despite its simplicity and intuitive appeal, fixed-value thresholding is unreliable and should always be preceded by appropriate filtering and careful control of the illumination level

Throughput Rate – Processing Speed – Normally expressed in parts per minute. This single parameter does not give any indication of the time required by a vision system to receive, analyse and interpret image formation for an individual piece-part

Time-multiplexed multi-site testing – A method of shortening test time by testing multiple devices at once

TNR – Tape and Reel

Tool presetter – A device that accurately measures the tools to assure that they are precisely set in the tool holders in the machine

Transistor – A semiconductor device used to regulate electric current or voltage flow, and acts as a switch for electronic signals and electrical power

Turret type automated test handler – A test handler which has a rotating or revolving holder for tools

Universal serial bus or USB – An industry standard used for transmission of data and power supply between computers and electronic devices

USB – Universal Serial Bus is a serial bus standard to interface devices. It was originally designed for personal computers, but it has become common place on handheld devices such as portable memory devices, video game consoles, PDAs and portable media players

um – Micrometer

UPH – Unit Per Hour, refers to the machine throughput

Vacuum tube – A device that controls electrical current through a vacuum in a sealed container

Verilog – A hardware description language used to design digital circuits at the register level

Vision system – An automated system incorporating a camera and sophisticated software for visual detection, such as markings. defects, color recognition, measurement and co-planarity, that provides feedback to the automation system to activate an action

VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network

Wafer – A thin slice of semiconductor material, such as crystalline silicon, used in the fabrication of integrated circuits

WiFi – Wireless Fidelity. A trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance that manufacturers may use to brand certified products that belong to a class of wireless local area network devices based on the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.11 standards

Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity is a set of product compatibility standards for wireless local area networks based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications. New standards beyond the 802.11 specification, such as 802.16 (WiMAX), are currently in the works and offer many enhancements, anywhere from longer range to greater transfer speeds

WiMAX – Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is to promote performance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16 standard by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001. WiMAX aims to provide wireless data over long distances, in a variety of different ways, from point to point links to full mobile cellular type access

WLP – Wafer Level Packaging, the die and “package” are manufactured and tested on the wafer prior to singulationm type of IC package

xDSL – Refers to all types of Digital Subscriber Lines and is a technology that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network

2D – Two (2) Dimension

3D – Three (3) Dimension

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